A theoretical model of perception of social support among pregnant minority women

2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10755/147438
Type:
Presentation
Title:
A theoretical model of perception of social support among pregnant minority women
Abstract:
A theoretical model of perception of social support among pregnant minority women
Conference Sponsor:Sigma Theta Tau International
Conference Year:1991
Author:Merkatz, Ruth, PhD
P.I. Institution Name:Pfizer Inc.
Title:
Inadequate social support has been hypothesized as an important variable in the etiology of low birthweight. The exact nature and mode of operation of social support remains unclear, however, and requires investigation prior to clinical use. A persistent research problem is lack of agreement on a conceptual definition. Perceived support or the notion that an individual feels loved and involved in open relationships has emerged as a specific subcategory of the broad concept.



The role of the individual in perception of social support has been questioned suggesting an interactive process. Attachment theorists propose that support is an extension of earlier experiences in feeling loved and that satisfying relationships with people is fundamental to both secure attachments and satisfying social support. Feminist theory focuses on the importance of relationships for the development of the self in women. Mutually caring and empathic mother-daughter interactions are critical to this self development, and to formation of the capacity to be mutually empathic in subsequent relationships. The investigator concluded that in an interactive system of perceived social support, the capacity for mutual empathy is a critical mediating variable. A theoretical model was developed and tested wherein a woman's attachment with her mother was postulated to influence her capacity for empathy which then influences perception of social support. Attachment was defined as having two dimensions; maternal care and overprotection and was measured by the Parental Bonding Instrument by Parker et al. Empathy was operationalized as a 3 dimensional construct of empathic concern, personal distress, and perspective taking as measured by The Interpersonal Reactivity Index by Davis. In accordance with Jordan's theory of empathy, the investigator characterized mutual empathy as having two elements; affective (empathic concern) and cognitive (perspective taking). Perception of social support was operationalized in terms of 2 components; availability and satisfaction with support. The Social Support Questionnaire by Sarason et al. was used. The 7 variable model predicted that maternal care would have a positive effect on empathic concern and perspective taking which, in turn would positively affect availability of and satisfaction with support. Overprotection was hypothesized to have a negative effect on these same elements, but a positive effect on personal distress. Availability of support was also predicted to directly increase satisfaction with support.



The sample was comprised of 164 urban black and Hispanic nulliparous women who attended a prenatal clinic and were at least 20 weeks pregnant. Utilizing path analysis, almost all paths in the model were statistically supported (p<.05). High scores on maternal care directly affected perspective taking which then affected social support availability and indirectly affected satisfaction (R=.20). As hypothesized, there was a positive effect of overprotection on personal distress and a direct effect of social support availability on satisfaction. The model findings provide a framework for studying how social support operates and for planning clinical interventions.
Repository Posting Date:
26-Oct-2011
Date of Publication:
17-Oct-2011
Sponsors:
Sigma Theta Tau International

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.typePresentationen_GB
dc.titleA theoretical model of perception of social support among pregnant minority womenen_GB
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10755/147438-
dc.description.abstract<table><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-title">A theoretical model of perception of social support among pregnant minority women</td></tr><tr class="item-sponsor"><td class="label">Conference Sponsor:</td><td class="value">Sigma Theta Tau International</td></tr><tr class="item-year"><td class="label">Conference Year:</td><td class="value">1991</td></tr><tr class="item-author"><td class="label">Author:</td><td class="value">Merkatz, Ruth, PhD</td></tr><tr class="item-institute"><td class="label">P.I. Institution Name:</td><td class="value">Pfizer Inc.</td></tr><tr class="item-author-title"><td class="label">Title:</td><td class="value"> </td></tr><tr class="item-email"><td class="label">Email:</td><td class="value">rmrnhome@aol.com</td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-abstract">Inadequate social support has been hypothesized as an important variable in the etiology of low birthweight. The exact nature and mode of operation of social support remains unclear, however, and requires investigation prior to clinical use. A persistent research problem is lack of agreement on a conceptual definition. Perceived support or the notion that an individual feels loved and involved in open relationships has emerged as a specific subcategory of the broad concept.<br/><br/><br/><br/>The role of the individual in perception of social support has been questioned suggesting an interactive process. Attachment theorists propose that support is an extension of earlier experiences in feeling loved and that satisfying relationships with people is fundamental to both secure attachments and satisfying social support. Feminist theory focuses on the importance of relationships for the development of the self in women. Mutually caring and empathic mother-daughter interactions are critical to this self development, and to formation of the capacity to be mutually empathic in subsequent relationships. The investigator concluded that in an interactive system of perceived social support, the capacity for mutual empathy is a critical mediating variable. A theoretical model was developed and tested wherein a woman's attachment with her mother was postulated to influence her capacity for empathy which then influences perception of social support. Attachment was defined as having two dimensions; maternal care and overprotection and was measured by the Parental Bonding Instrument by Parker et al. Empathy was operationalized as a 3 dimensional construct of empathic concern, personal distress, and perspective taking as measured by The Interpersonal Reactivity Index by Davis. In accordance with Jordan's theory of empathy, the investigator characterized mutual empathy as having two elements; affective (empathic concern) and cognitive (perspective taking). Perception of social support was operationalized in terms of 2 components; availability and satisfaction with support. The Social Support Questionnaire by Sarason et al. was used. The 7 variable model predicted that maternal care would have a positive effect on empathic concern and perspective taking which, in turn would positively affect availability of and satisfaction with support. Overprotection was hypothesized to have a negative effect on these same elements, but a positive effect on personal distress. Availability of support was also predicted to directly increase satisfaction with support.<br/><br/><br/><br/>The sample was comprised of 164 urban black and Hispanic nulliparous women who attended a prenatal clinic and were at least 20 weeks pregnant. Utilizing path analysis, almost all paths in the model were statistically supported (p&lt;.05). High scores on maternal care directly affected perspective taking which then affected social support availability and indirectly affected satisfaction (R=.20). As hypothesized, there was a positive effect of overprotection on personal distress and a direct effect of social support availability on satisfaction. The model findings provide a framework for studying how social support operates and for planning clinical interventions.</td></tr></table>en_GB
dc.date.available2011-10-26T09:32:25Z-
dc.date.issued2011-10-17en_GB
dc.date.accessioned2011-10-26T09:32:25Z-
dc.description.sponsorshipSigma Theta Tau Internationalen_GB
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