2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10755/149300
Type:
Presentation
Title:
Criterion validity of the Balance Scale
Abstract:
Criterion validity of the Balance Scale
Conference Sponsor:Sigma Theta Tau International
Conference Year:1991
Author:Roberts, Beverly, PhD
P.I. Institution Name:Case Western Reserve University
Title:Associate Professor
Postural instability has been identified as a contributing factor

in falls among elderly adult and is a motor behavior that is

manifested in the ability to control and maintain a stable upright

posture. Stability can be measured with a force platform that

describes the movement of the center of pressure, but it is very

complex and expensive and frequently not available in a clinical

setting. Thus, investigators frequently use indicators without

established validity and reliability. These include the time a

person can stand on one foot or reactions to perturbations to an

upright posture. Although these measures can be used in a clinical

and research settings, they are not very sensitive. To provide a

clinical measure of postural stability with good validity and

reliability, the Balance Scale was designed to measure static

postural stability and to be sensitive enough to detect

differences. Although construct validity, internal consistency and

inter-rater reliability have been established for this measure,

criterion validity has not established. Thus, the purpose of this

study was to determine the criterion validity of the Balance Scale

among elderly adults.



A random sample of ten persons was selected from a registry of

persons willing to participate in research. These 5 men and 5

women had a mean age of 76.3 (SD = 5.19), and they had normal gait,

negative Romberg and a negative history of neurological diseases.

They had not consumed any alcoholic beverages 24 hours prior to

data collection. For the Balance Scale, the subject stood on one

foot, stood on toes and stood with feet flat on the floor (Romberg

stance). These stances were done with the subject's eyes open and

eyes closed. Subjects stood on the force platform while their

ability to maintain these four stances was timed up to a maximum of

thirty seconds for each stance. During these measurements, the

force platform was sampling information about the center of

pressure. Data from the platform corresponding to the time the

subject was able to maintain a stance were identified for each of

the six stances. Next, the mean center of pressure and its

standard deviation were computed for each stance and each axis (ML

and AP).



Since greater variability in the center of pressure is associated

with more difficulty in maintaining a stable posture, the standard

deviation of the center of pressure for each axis and each stance

was computed for each subject. As expected, for all stances, the

correlation between the standard deviation of the movement of the

center of pressure was negatively correlated with the time the

subject maintained the stance (lower times indicate poorer

balance). For the stances with the eyes open, the correlations

ranged from -.62 for the one foot stand and the SD of the AP axis

to -.65 for the one foot stand with the SD of the ML axis. For the

eyes closed, the correlations were much smaller ranging from -.03

for toe stand and the SD of the AP axis to -.15 for standing on one

foot and the SD of the ML axis. Subjects indicated that they were

more fearful of falling during the stances with the eyes closed.

Hence, they may have returned to a more stable position earlier

than during the stances with the eyes open. This fear may account

for the smaller correlations between the standard deviation of the

center of pressure and the time of the stances with the eyes

closed. These results suggest that the stances with the eyes open

have criterion related validity but provide little support for the

validity of the stances with the eyes closed. Since the sample

size was small, the correlations would be expected vary across

sample, indicating a need to replicate this study with a larger

sample.



Repository Posting Date:
26-Oct-2011
Date of Publication:
17-Oct-2011
Sponsors:
Sigma Theta Tau International

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.typePresentationen_GB
dc.titleCriterion validity of the Balance Scaleen_GB
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10755/149300-
dc.description.abstract<table><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-title">Criterion validity of the Balance Scale</td></tr><tr class="item-sponsor"><td class="label">Conference Sponsor:</td><td class="value">Sigma Theta Tau International</td></tr><tr class="item-year"><td class="label">Conference Year:</td><td class="value">1991</td></tr><tr class="item-author"><td class="label">Author:</td><td class="value">Roberts, Beverly, PhD</td></tr><tr class="item-institute"><td class="label">P.I. Institution Name:</td><td class="value">Case Western Reserve University</td></tr><tr class="item-author-title"><td class="label">Title:</td><td class="value">Associate Professor</td></tr><tr class="item-email"><td class="label">Email:</td><td class="value">blr4@po.cwru.edu</td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-abstract">Postural instability has been identified as a contributing factor<br/><br/>in falls among elderly adult and is a motor behavior that is<br/><br/>manifested in the ability to control and maintain a stable upright<br/><br/>posture. Stability can be measured with a force platform that<br/><br/>describes the movement of the center of pressure, but it is very<br/><br/>complex and expensive and frequently not available in a clinical<br/><br/>setting. Thus, investigators frequently use indicators without<br/><br/>established validity and reliability. These include the time a<br/><br/>person can stand on one foot or reactions to perturbations to an<br/><br/>upright posture. Although these measures can be used in a clinical<br/><br/>and research settings, they are not very sensitive. To provide a<br/><br/>clinical measure of postural stability with good validity and<br/><br/>reliability, the Balance Scale was designed to measure static<br/><br/>postural stability and to be sensitive enough to detect<br/><br/>differences. Although construct validity, internal consistency and<br/><br/>inter-rater reliability have been established for this measure,<br/><br/>criterion validity has not established. Thus, the purpose of this<br/><br/>study was to determine the criterion validity of the Balance Scale<br/><br/>among elderly adults.<br/><br/><br/><br/>A random sample of ten persons was selected from a registry of<br/><br/>persons willing to participate in research. These 5 men and 5<br/><br/>women had a mean age of 76.3 (SD = 5.19), and they had normal gait,<br/><br/>negative Romberg and a negative history of neurological diseases.<br/><br/>They had not consumed any alcoholic beverages 24 hours prior to<br/><br/>data collection. For the Balance Scale, the subject stood on one<br/><br/>foot, stood on toes and stood with feet flat on the floor (Romberg<br/><br/>stance). These stances were done with the subject's eyes open and<br/><br/>eyes closed. Subjects stood on the force platform while their<br/><br/>ability to maintain these four stances was timed up to a maximum of<br/><br/>thirty seconds for each stance. During these measurements, the<br/><br/>force platform was sampling information about the center of<br/><br/>pressure. Data from the platform corresponding to the time the<br/><br/>subject was able to maintain a stance were identified for each of<br/><br/>the six stances. Next, the mean center of pressure and its<br/><br/>standard deviation were computed for each stance and each axis (ML<br/><br/>and AP).<br/><br/><br/><br/>Since greater variability in the center of pressure is associated<br/><br/>with more difficulty in maintaining a stable posture, the standard<br/><br/>deviation of the center of pressure for each axis and each stance<br/><br/>was computed for each subject. As expected, for all stances, the<br/><br/>correlation between the standard deviation of the movement of the<br/><br/>center of pressure was negatively correlated with the time the<br/><br/>subject maintained the stance (lower times indicate poorer<br/><br/>balance). For the stances with the eyes open, the correlations<br/><br/>ranged from -.62 for the one foot stand and the SD of the AP axis<br/><br/>to -.65 for the one foot stand with the SD of the ML axis. For the<br/><br/>eyes closed, the correlations were much smaller ranging from -.03<br/><br/>for toe stand and the SD of the AP axis to -.15 for standing on one<br/><br/>foot and the SD of the ML axis. Subjects indicated that they were<br/><br/>more fearful of falling during the stances with the eyes closed.<br/><br/>Hence, they may have returned to a more stable position earlier<br/><br/>than during the stances with the eyes open. This fear may account<br/><br/>for the smaller correlations between the standard deviation of the<br/><br/>center of pressure and the time of the stances with the eyes<br/><br/>closed. These results suggest that the stances with the eyes open<br/><br/>have criterion related validity but provide little support for the<br/><br/>validity of the stances with the eyes closed. Since the sample<br/><br/>size was small, the correlations would be expected vary across<br/><br/>sample, indicating a need to replicate this study with a larger<br/><br/>sample.<br/><br/><br/><br/></td></tr></table>en_GB
dc.date.available2011-10-26T09:59:44Z-
dc.date.issued2011-10-17en_GB
dc.date.accessioned2011-10-26T09:59:44Z-
dc.description.sponsorshipSigma Theta Tau Internationalen_GB
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