2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10755/151793
Type:
Presentation
Title:
Women Living with HIV/AIDS: A Matrix of Silence
Abstract:
Women Living with HIV/AIDS: A Matrix of Silence
Conference Sponsor:Sigma Theta Tau International
Conference Year:2001
Conference Date:June, 2001
Author:DeMarco, Rosanna, PhD
P.I. Institution Name:Boston College
Title:Assistant Professor
Objective: The purpose of the study was to measure the effect and experience of an educational intervention series on the individual perception of silencing behaviors and affectivity in women living with HIV/AIDS. Design: A quasi-experimental pretest post-test design with a non-equivalent comparison group in combination with qualitative interviews at the end of the series for both groups was used. Population: Purposive sample of women infected with the HIV virus participated voluntarily. The total number of participants was 15. The mean age of the women was 42.26 (S.D.=7.39) and 67% of the participants were African American. Recruitment occurred through a major medical center clinic and community service organization devoted to HIV/AIDS care in the greater Boston Massachusetts region of the USA. Variables and Educational Intervention: Silencing behaviors are interpersonal communication styles that demonstrate burying of personal needs and feelings either by using protective strategies to preserve relationships with others, or by using coping strategies to divorce oneself from any overbearing culture. Affectivity is a way of describing one’s personal mood state, measured in a positive to negative continuum. The educational intervention series addressed (1) silencing behaviors and women, (2) effectiveness of different healing strategies, and (3) action in the form of self-advocating communication with health care providers. Each topic was presented over a three month period of time. Methods: A “between” method triangulation methodology was used. The quantitative measure consisted of a pre and post-test using the Silencing of the Self Scale and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (Likert measures). Qualitative structured audio taped interviews for all participants were conducted at the end of the educational series. An expert member-checking group validated themes from the interviews. Findings: Total “silencing the self” scores were higher overall in the control group than the experimental group. Sub-scale scores in the Silencing the Self Scale that were higher than normative comparison to women in a domestic violence shelter for both experimental and control group were “Care as Self Sacrifice. This high score was confirmed in consistent reference by all the women related to putting their children and adult significant others before their voiced needs or feelings. Positive and Negative Affectivity scores were similar in both groups but negative affectivity was much higher in women with HIV/AIDS than with normative comparisons of healthy adults and college undergraduates. Qualitative data were thematically identified as 1) disease as punishment, 2) disease that isolates, and 3) disease that force a balance between silencing and independent strength. Conclusions: Women living with HIV/AIDS decreased “silencing the self” scores and increased “positive affectivity” while participating in an educational series that addressed barriers to voicing their needs and concerns in the healthcare system and in their social lives. Qualitative findings suggest stigma leading to isolation contributes to silencing behaviors and negative emotions related to their disease and self. Discussion of these experiences through an educational series that supports women’s voices was found to be helpful and enlightening. Implications: Women who have acquired the HIV virus are increasing at a rapid rate. Research data confirms the presence of (1) silencing behaviors in women with HIV/AIDS as an illness coping strategy, (2) barriers within the medical care culture that force women to “give up” expressing what they need and feel, and (3) the need for meaningful intervention studies with this group of clients/patients. The research findings of this study are intended to improve and extend knowledge beyond physical health care interventions for women with HIV/AIDS. More research is needed to understand cultural and ethnic differences related to these measured phenomena.
Repository Posting Date:
26-Oct-2011
Date of Publication:
Jun-2001
Sponsors:
Sigma Theta Tau International

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.typePresentationen_GB
dc.titleWomen Living with HIV/AIDS: A Matrix of Silenceen_GB
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10755/151793-
dc.description.abstract<table><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-title">Women Living with HIV/AIDS: A Matrix of Silence</td></tr><tr class="item-sponsor"><td class="label">Conference Sponsor:</td><td class="value">Sigma Theta Tau International</td></tr><tr class="item-year"><td class="label">Conference Year:</td><td class="value">2001</td></tr><tr class="item-conference-date"><td class="label">Conference Date:</td><td class="value">June, 2001</td></tr><tr class="item-author"><td class="label">Author:</td><td class="value">DeMarco, Rosanna, PhD</td></tr><tr class="item-institute"><td class="label">P.I. Institution Name:</td><td class="value">Boston College</td></tr><tr class="item-author-title"><td class="label">Title:</td><td class="value">Assistant Professor</td></tr><tr class="item-email"><td class="label">Email:</td><td class="value">rosanna.demarco@bc.edu</td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-abstract">Objective: The purpose of the study was to measure the effect and experience of an educational intervention series on the individual perception of silencing behaviors and affectivity in women living with HIV/AIDS. Design: A quasi-experimental pretest post-test design with a non-equivalent comparison group in combination with qualitative interviews at the end of the series for both groups was used. Population: Purposive sample of women infected with the HIV virus participated voluntarily. The total number of participants was 15. The mean age of the women was 42.26 (S.D.=7.39) and 67% of the participants were African American. Recruitment occurred through a major medical center clinic and community service organization devoted to HIV/AIDS care in the greater Boston Massachusetts region of the USA. Variables and Educational Intervention: Silencing behaviors are interpersonal communication styles that demonstrate burying of personal needs and feelings either by using protective strategies to preserve relationships with others, or by using coping strategies to divorce oneself from any overbearing culture. Affectivity is a way of describing one&rsquo;s personal mood state, measured in a positive to negative continuum. The educational intervention series addressed (1) silencing behaviors and women, (2) effectiveness of different healing strategies, and (3) action in the form of self-advocating communication with health care providers. Each topic was presented over a three month period of time. Methods: A &ldquo;between&rdquo; method triangulation methodology was used. The quantitative measure consisted of a pre and post-test using the Silencing of the Self Scale and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (Likert measures). Qualitative structured audio taped interviews for all participants were conducted at the end of the educational series. An expert member-checking group validated themes from the interviews. Findings: Total &ldquo;silencing the self&rdquo; scores were higher overall in the control group than the experimental group. Sub-scale scores in the Silencing the Self Scale that were higher than normative comparison to women in a domestic violence shelter for both experimental and control group were &ldquo;Care as Self Sacrifice. This high score was confirmed in consistent reference by all the women related to putting their children and adult significant others before their voiced needs or feelings. Positive and Negative Affectivity scores were similar in both groups but negative affectivity was much higher in women with HIV/AIDS than with normative comparisons of healthy adults and college undergraduates. Qualitative data were thematically identified as 1) disease as punishment, 2) disease that isolates, and 3) disease that force a balance between silencing and independent strength. Conclusions: Women living with HIV/AIDS decreased &ldquo;silencing the self&rdquo; scores and increased &ldquo;positive affectivity&rdquo; while participating in an educational series that addressed barriers to voicing their needs and concerns in the healthcare system and in their social lives. Qualitative findings suggest stigma leading to isolation contributes to silencing behaviors and negative emotions related to their disease and self. Discussion of these experiences through an educational series that supports women&rsquo;s voices was found to be helpful and enlightening. Implications: Women who have acquired the HIV virus are increasing at a rapid rate. Research data confirms the presence of (1) silencing behaviors in women with HIV/AIDS as an illness coping strategy, (2) barriers within the medical care culture that force women to &ldquo;give up&rdquo; expressing what they need and feel, and (3) the need for meaningful intervention studies with this group of clients/patients. The research findings of this study are intended to improve and extend knowledge beyond physical health care interventions for women with HIV/AIDS. More research is needed to understand cultural and ethnic differences related to these measured phenomena.</td></tr></table>en_GB
dc.date.available2011-10-26T11:13:52Z-
dc.date.issued2001-06en_GB
dc.date.accessioned2011-10-26T11:13:52Z-
dc.description.sponsorshipSigma Theta Tau Internationalen_GB
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