Using Community-Based Focus Groups as Educational Interventions for End of Life Care Planning

2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10755/151803
Type:
Presentation
Title:
Using Community-Based Focus Groups as Educational Interventions for End of Life Care Planning
Abstract:
Using Community-Based Focus Groups as Educational Interventions for End of Life Care Planning
Conference Sponsor:Sigma Theta Tau International
Conference Year:2001
Conference Date:June, 2001
Author:Havens, Gail
P.I. Institution Name:Pennsylvania State University
Objective: The goal of this study was to increase understanding of the prospective planning in which community dwelling adults engage in preparing for the phase of their lives in which they are dying. Design: A qualitative approach using focus group interviews. Population, Sample, Setting, Years: Community dwelling Pennsylvanians constituted the population of interest. Geographically distributed focus groups were formed in 8 of Pennsylvania's 67 counties: two urban, two suburban, and four rural. Members across all groups (n=70) were purposively invited to participate in order to represent the gender proportions, age range, and racial diversity then existing in the respective county. The interviews were conducted in May and June 2000. Concept or Variables Studied Together or Intervention and Outcome Variables: Participants' perspectives, convictions, and experiences about prospective planning for end of life (EOL) care and the composition and scope of their EOL treatment planning were explored. Methods: Informational materials were mailed to participants at least two weeks prior to the interview, including a letter with contact information from the principal investigator (PI) confirming their participation, an informed consent document, and a list of the topics to be discussed. The PI moderated the interviews. An assistant moderator operated the audio recording equipment and noted participants' non-verbal communication. The entire set of semi-structured questions was discussed in each interview but, as the topics were integrated into the natural flow of the discussion, the sequence of questions differed by group. A monetary incentive was given to each participant at the conclusion of the interview. Verbatim transcriptions were analyzed by interview question with categories formed for each group interview. Categories were organized across groups and themes derived. Findings: Twenty-one participants (30%) had planned for their EOL care by executing an advance directive. The sample was 44% female, ranged in age from 19 to 81 years, and was 79.4% White and 16.2% African-American. Participants came prepared to discuss a topic perceived to be unpleasant: their own deaths. The participants also shared a study objective: to obtain information about a sensitive topic from a perceived expert. The researcher had not fully anticipated the fervor of the participants' intent. Thus, the research purpose was transformed concurrently from primarily a data-gathering endeavor to a dialogue that incorporated educational interventions related to prospective EOL treatment planning. Most participants had little or inaccurate information about the options available to convey their EOL treatment choices. Of those who had previously pursued the topic, many were troubled that they were without a member of their moral community, that is a spouse, family member, or friend willing to engage in conversation with them about their EOL treatment planning. The reasons for prospective planning for EOL care varied by age group, while the type and substance of EOL planning varied by race, as well as by the type of community, namely urban, suburban, or rural, in which participants resided. Conclusions: The research context is a potent environment for educational interventions surrounding an anxiety-evoking topic. Community dwelling adults do not appear reluctant to talk about their deaths, nor about what constitutes an acceptable quality of life as they are dying. The nature of their EOL treatment plans and how community dwelling adults envisioned these would be expressed and accomplished for them conveyed a broad range of designs that reflected the wide variety of personal values on which they are founded. As they engage in the process of prospective EOL treatment planning, community dwelling adults need, not only the support, but also the mutual engagement, of members of their moral communities. As well, they need access to culturally sensitive professionals well versed in the subject who can provide the requisite information critical in making informed decisions. Implications: By engaging in research as praxis, nurse researchers can collaborate with colleagues engaged in clinical practice and transcend the traditional empirical paradigm to engage in scientific inquiry that is reciprocal and that empowers both the researcher and the clinician, as well as those researched.
Repository Posting Date:
26-Oct-2011
Date of Publication:
Jun-2001
Sponsors:
Sigma Theta Tau International

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.typePresentationen_GB
dc.titleUsing Community-Based Focus Groups as Educational Interventions for End of Life Care Planningen_GB
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10755/151803-
dc.description.abstract<table><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-title">Using Community-Based Focus Groups as Educational Interventions for End of Life Care Planning</td></tr><tr class="item-sponsor"><td class="label">Conference Sponsor:</td><td class="value">Sigma Theta Tau International</td></tr><tr class="item-year"><td class="label">Conference Year:</td><td class="value">2001</td></tr><tr class="item-conference-date"><td class="label">Conference Date:</td><td class="value">June, 2001</td></tr><tr class="item-author"><td class="label">Author:</td><td class="value">Havens, Gail</td></tr><tr class="item-institute"><td class="label">P.I. Institution Name:</td><td class="value">Pennsylvania State University</td></tr><tr class="item-email"><td class="label">Email:</td><td class="value">gdh6@psu.edu</td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-abstract">Objective: The goal of this study was to increase understanding of the prospective planning in which community dwelling adults engage in preparing for the phase of their lives in which they are dying. Design: A qualitative approach using focus group interviews. Population, Sample, Setting, Years: Community dwelling Pennsylvanians constituted the population of interest. Geographically distributed focus groups were formed in 8 of Pennsylvania's 67 counties: two urban, two suburban, and four rural. Members across all groups (n=70) were purposively invited to participate in order to represent the gender proportions, age range, and racial diversity then existing in the respective county. The interviews were conducted in May and June 2000. Concept or Variables Studied Together or Intervention and Outcome Variables: Participants' perspectives, convictions, and experiences about prospective planning for end of life (EOL) care and the composition and scope of their EOL treatment planning were explored. Methods: Informational materials were mailed to participants at least two weeks prior to the interview, including a letter with contact information from the principal investigator (PI) confirming their participation, an informed consent document, and a list of the topics to be discussed. The PI moderated the interviews. An assistant moderator operated the audio recording equipment and noted participants' non-verbal communication. The entire set of semi-structured questions was discussed in each interview but, as the topics were integrated into the natural flow of the discussion, the sequence of questions differed by group. A monetary incentive was given to each participant at the conclusion of the interview. Verbatim transcriptions were analyzed by interview question with categories formed for each group interview. Categories were organized across groups and themes derived. Findings: Twenty-one participants (30%) had planned for their EOL care by executing an advance directive. The sample was 44% female, ranged in age from 19 to 81 years, and was 79.4% White and 16.2% African-American. Participants came prepared to discuss a topic perceived to be unpleasant: their own deaths. The participants also shared a study objective: to obtain information about a sensitive topic from a perceived expert. The researcher had not fully anticipated the fervor of the participants' intent. Thus, the research purpose was transformed concurrently from primarily a data-gathering endeavor to a dialogue that incorporated educational interventions related to prospective EOL treatment planning. Most participants had little or inaccurate information about the options available to convey their EOL treatment choices. Of those who had previously pursued the topic, many were troubled that they were without a member of their moral community, that is a spouse, family member, or friend willing to engage in conversation with them about their EOL treatment planning. The reasons for prospective planning for EOL care varied by age group, while the type and substance of EOL planning varied by race, as well as by the type of community, namely urban, suburban, or rural, in which participants resided. Conclusions: The research context is a potent environment for educational interventions surrounding an anxiety-evoking topic. Community dwelling adults do not appear reluctant to talk about their deaths, nor about what constitutes an acceptable quality of life as they are dying. The nature of their EOL treatment plans and how community dwelling adults envisioned these would be expressed and accomplished for them conveyed a broad range of designs that reflected the wide variety of personal values on which they are founded. As they engage in the process of prospective EOL treatment planning, community dwelling adults need, not only the support, but also the mutual engagement, of members of their moral communities. As well, they need access to culturally sensitive professionals well versed in the subject who can provide the requisite information critical in making informed decisions. Implications: By engaging in research as praxis, nurse researchers can collaborate with colleagues engaged in clinical practice and transcend the traditional empirical paradigm to engage in scientific inquiry that is reciprocal and that empowers both the researcher and the clinician, as well as those researched.</td></tr></table>en_GB
dc.date.available2011-10-26T11:14:13Z-
dc.date.issued2001-06en_GB
dc.date.accessioned2011-10-26T11:14:13Z-
dc.description.sponsorshipSigma Theta Tau Internationalen_GB
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