Predictors of Risk-Taking Behaviors in Late Adolescence: Test of a Mediational Model of Characterological and Situational Factors, Attachment Experiences, Affective and Cognitive Experiences, and Behaviors

2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10755/151839
Type:
Presentation
Title:
Predictors of Risk-Taking Behaviors in Late Adolescence: Test of a Mediational Model of Characterological and Situational Factors, Attachment Experiences, Affective and Cognitive Experiences, and Behaviors
Abstract:
Predictors of Risk-Taking Behaviors in Late Adolescence: Test of a Mediational Model of Characterological and Situational Factors, Attachment Experiences, Affective and Cognitive Experiences, and Behaviors
Conference Sponsor:Sigma Theta Tau International
Conference Year:2002
Conference Date:July, 2002
Author:Christopherson, Toni
P.I. Institution Name:El Camino College
Title:Assistant Director
Objective The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) identified alcohol use, tobacco, injuries, and sexual behaviors as adolescent risk-taking behaviors. These behaviors peak during late adolescence and are contributing factors in serious, preventable health problems affecting adolescents in the United States. The socioecological model explains the health and well being of individuals, families, and communities as a powerful interaction between biology, behavior, and environment. Sociocontextual factors (characterological, situational) place an adolescent in danger for engaging in risk-taking behaviors. There are characterological factors such as shyness and situational factors such as attachments or law abidance orientation that may influence risk-taking behaviors. The socioecological model also assumes that gender differences assist in shaping the context available for individual functioning. The purpose of this study was development of a more complete understanding of how socioecological constructs operate together to explain risk-taking behaviors in late adolescent (18 - 21 year olds) by integrating characterological and situational factors with adolescent behavioral outcomes as mediated by attachment, affective, and cognitive experiences and moderated by gender. Design This non-experiment, descriptive study was cross-sectional. Population, Sample, Setting, Years The population was rural college students in Northern California. A non-probability approach was used with resultant convenience sample. The sample was 437 late adolescents between 18 to 21 years: 251 males, 186 females. Over 80% were Caucasian. Concept or Variables Studied Together The independent variables were perceived maternal expressiveness, perceived paternal expressiveness, and shyness. The mediators included parental attachment, loneliness, and law abidance. The dependent variables were alcohol-related behaviors, tobacco use, sexual behaviors, and condom use. The moderator variable was biological gender. Methods University of Southern California Institutional Review Board approved the research. There were seven instruments: Perceived Maternal Expressiveness, Perceived Paternal Expressiveness, Shyness, Parental Attachment, UCLA Loneliness, Law Abidance, and Youth Risk Behavior. Anonymity was protected. Structural equation modeling utilized for analysis. The model fit the data according to all criteria. Findings Hypothesis 1 For males, parental expressiveness and sexual behaviors, condom use were positively related. Shy males participated in a lower level of sexual behaviors and alcohol-related behaviors than less shy counterparts. For females, sexual behaviors were negatively related to parental expressiveness. Hypothesis 2 For females, parental expressiveness was highly statistically related to parental attachment. For males, there was a relationship between the two variables, but not as strong as for females. There was a statistically significant negative relationship between shyness and parental attachment for both males and females. Hypothesis 3 There was a negative relationship between parental attachment and loneliness for both males and females. There was a positive relationship between parental attachment and law abidance for both males and females. Hypothesis 4 For females, loneliness was significantly positively related to sexual behaviors and tobacco use, and for males, loneliness was negatively related to condom use. Law abidance was negatively related to sex for males and females. Hypothesis 5 For males, shyness, law abidance, and parental attachment influenced alcohol-related behaviors. Parental attachment experiences and cognitive experiences influenced sexual behaviors more than shyness. Condom use was influenced by parental attachment experiences. For females, parental attachment and law abidance were predictors of alcohol-related behaviors. Loneliness and law abidance mediated parental attachment, and loneliness mediated shyness in influencing sexual behaviors. Loneliness was a better predictor of tobacco use than parental expressiveness mediated by parental attachment or shyness. Question 1 The factor structure and magnitude of factor loadings for the measured variables on the alcohol-related latent construct differed by gender, which was higher for males than for females. Latent variables related to other latent or measured variables in statistically significantly ways. For example, there was no effect between shyness and alcohol-related behaviors for females, but there was a negative effect between shyness and alcohol-related behaviors for males. Conclusions Many risk-taking behaviors were influenced by parental expressiveness mediated by parental attachment, loneliness, and/or law abidance, as well as shyness mediated by loneliness. Further, there were gender moderator effects, especially for parental expressiveness and parental attachment, parental attachment and law abidance, tobacco, and shyness and alcohol. Implications Findings are congruent with attachment theory that finds attachment is a lifelong process and views adolescent attachment as necessary for healthy development. Multi-disciplinary services addressing a socioecological perspective, specifically situational and characterological factors, parent-adolescent attachment experiences, and affective and cognitive experiences may influence risk-taking behaviors. There is a need for an extension and replication study with other ages, in various settings, and considering cultural diversity. This study provided only one possible model to predict risk-taking behaviors in adolescents, and other factors, mediators, or moderators require study.

Repository Posting Date:
26-Oct-2011
Date of Publication:
Jul-2002
Sponsors:
Sigma Theta Tau International

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.typePresentationen_GB
dc.titlePredictors of Risk-Taking Behaviors in Late Adolescence: Test of a Mediational Model of Characterological and Situational Factors, Attachment Experiences, Affective and Cognitive Experiences, and Behaviorsen_GB
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10755/151839-
dc.description.abstract<table><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-title">Predictors of Risk-Taking Behaviors in Late Adolescence: Test of a Mediational Model of Characterological and Situational Factors, Attachment Experiences, Affective and Cognitive Experiences, and Behaviors</td></tr><tr class="item-sponsor"><td class="label">Conference Sponsor:</td><td class="value">Sigma Theta Tau International</td></tr><tr class="item-year"><td class="label">Conference Year:</td><td class="value">2002</td></tr><tr class="item-conference-date"><td class="label">Conference Date:</td><td class="value">July, 2002</td></tr><tr class="item-author"><td class="label">Author:</td><td class="value">Christopherson, Toni</td></tr><tr class="item-institute"><td class="label">P.I. Institution Name:</td><td class="value">El Camino College</td></tr><tr class="item-author-title"><td class="label">Title:</td><td class="value">Assistant Director</td></tr><tr class="item-email"><td class="label">Email:</td><td class="value">mikalaek@aol.com</td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-abstract">Objective The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) identified alcohol use, tobacco, injuries, and sexual behaviors as adolescent risk-taking behaviors. These behaviors peak during late adolescence and are contributing factors in serious, preventable health problems affecting adolescents in the United States. The socioecological model explains the health and well being of individuals, families, and communities as a powerful interaction between biology, behavior, and environment. Sociocontextual factors (characterological, situational) place an adolescent in danger for engaging in risk-taking behaviors. There are characterological factors such as shyness and situational factors such as attachments or law abidance orientation that may influence risk-taking behaviors. The socioecological model also assumes that gender differences assist in shaping the context available for individual functioning. The purpose of this study was development of a more complete understanding of how socioecological constructs operate together to explain risk-taking behaviors in late adolescent (18 - 21 year olds) by integrating characterological and situational factors with adolescent behavioral outcomes as mediated by attachment, affective, and cognitive experiences and moderated by gender. Design This non-experiment, descriptive study was cross-sectional. Population, Sample, Setting, Years The population was rural college students in Northern California. A non-probability approach was used with resultant convenience sample. The sample was 437 late adolescents between 18 to 21 years: 251 males, 186 females. Over 80% were Caucasian. Concept or Variables Studied Together The independent variables were perceived maternal expressiveness, perceived paternal expressiveness, and shyness. The mediators included parental attachment, loneliness, and law abidance. The dependent variables were alcohol-related behaviors, tobacco use, sexual behaviors, and condom use. The moderator variable was biological gender. Methods University of Southern California Institutional Review Board approved the research. There were seven instruments: Perceived Maternal Expressiveness, Perceived Paternal Expressiveness, Shyness, Parental Attachment, UCLA Loneliness, Law Abidance, and Youth Risk Behavior. Anonymity was protected. Structural equation modeling utilized for analysis. The model fit the data according to all criteria. Findings Hypothesis 1 For males, parental expressiveness and sexual behaviors, condom use were positively related. Shy males participated in a lower level of sexual behaviors and alcohol-related behaviors than less shy counterparts. For females, sexual behaviors were negatively related to parental expressiveness. Hypothesis 2 For females, parental expressiveness was highly statistically related to parental attachment. For males, there was a relationship between the two variables, but not as strong as for females. There was a statistically significant negative relationship between shyness and parental attachment for both males and females. Hypothesis 3 There was a negative relationship between parental attachment and loneliness for both males and females. There was a positive relationship between parental attachment and law abidance for both males and females. Hypothesis 4 For females, loneliness was significantly positively related to sexual behaviors and tobacco use, and for males, loneliness was negatively related to condom use. Law abidance was negatively related to sex for males and females. Hypothesis 5 For males, shyness, law abidance, and parental attachment influenced alcohol-related behaviors. Parental attachment experiences and cognitive experiences influenced sexual behaviors more than shyness. Condom use was influenced by parental attachment experiences. For females, parental attachment and law abidance were predictors of alcohol-related behaviors. Loneliness and law abidance mediated parental attachment, and loneliness mediated shyness in influencing sexual behaviors. Loneliness was a better predictor of tobacco use than parental expressiveness mediated by parental attachment or shyness. Question 1 The factor structure and magnitude of factor loadings for the measured variables on the alcohol-related latent construct differed by gender, which was higher for males than for females. Latent variables related to other latent or measured variables in statistically significantly ways. For example, there was no effect between shyness and alcohol-related behaviors for females, but there was a negative effect between shyness and alcohol-related behaviors for males. Conclusions Many risk-taking behaviors were influenced by parental expressiveness mediated by parental attachment, loneliness, and/or law abidance, as well as shyness mediated by loneliness. Further, there were gender moderator effects, especially for parental expressiveness and parental attachment, parental attachment and law abidance, tobacco, and shyness and alcohol. Implications Findings are congruent with attachment theory that finds attachment is a lifelong process and views adolescent attachment as necessary for healthy development. Multi-disciplinary services addressing a socioecological perspective, specifically situational and characterological factors, parent-adolescent attachment experiences, and affective and cognitive experiences may influence risk-taking behaviors. There is a need for an extension and replication study with other ages, in various settings, and considering cultural diversity. This study provided only one possible model to predict risk-taking behaviors in adolescents, and other factors, mediators, or moderators require study.<br/><br/></td></tr></table>en_GB
dc.date.available2011-10-26T11:15:24Z-
dc.date.issued2002-07en_GB
dc.date.accessioned2011-10-26T11:15:24Z-
dc.description.sponsorshipSigma Theta Tau Internationalen_GB
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