2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10755/151847
Type:
Presentation
Title:
Concerns of Breastfeeding Mothers: The First 20 Weeks
Abstract:
Concerns of Breastfeeding Mothers: The First 20 Weeks
Conference Sponsor:Sigma Theta Tau International
Conference Year:2002
Conference Date:July, 2002
Author:Perry, Shannon, PhD
P.I. Institution Name:San Francisco State University
Title:Professor
Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the concerns of breastfeeding mothers during the first 20 weeks postpartum and determine whether the type and number of concerns were related to breastfeeding patterns at 20 weeks postpartum. Design: The study was a secondary analysis of data collected in a study of insufficient milk supply and was a replication of a portion of Phase I of this longitudinal study. Population, Sample, Setting, Years: Participants in the study were a convenience sample of 326 breastfeeding women who were recruited from 10 hospitals in Wyoming, Colorado, Iowa and Illinois. Inclusion criteria were that the mothers aged 19 years or older, had given birth to their first or second baby who was a healthy, singleton, term infant weighing at least 2,500 grams and being 37 weeks or greater gestation, and were breastfeeding. Data were collected in the mid 1990's; the secondary analysis occurred in 2000. Concept or Variables Studied Together or Intervention and Outcome Variable(s): Breastfeeding concerns (breast comfort, milk production, infant behavior, feeding technique, feeding pattern, alternative feeding, and other, e.g., jaundice) were the variables of interest. Methods: In the primary study, the sample was divided into three groups based on their risk for insufficient milk supply: control, comparison, and intervention with primiparous and multiparous women in each group. The high risk mothers were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. Mothers in the intervention group received breastfeeding support and advice on the telephone and in home visits; the control group received usual care from their primary health care provider and only calls for data collection but no advice from the researchers. The low risk women formed the comparison group. The high risk control and low risk comparison mothers were followed by telephone by an interviewer with no health care background at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 14, 16, and 20 weeks after birth about their breastfeeding concerns, specific breastfeeding concerns, and whether their concerns were resolved. Findings: The average age of the mothers was 27.9 years, the mean years of education was 14.4, and 84% were married. The majority of participants were Caucasian (89 %). Frequencies of concerns by group were calculated. The concerns of the three groups as well as the concerns of experienced and inexperienced mothers were compared. Proportion of mothers expressing concerns decreased over time, but some concerns such as nipple tenderness and breast engorgement persisted over the 20 weeks. The number and type of concerns were examined in relation to early weaning or continued breastfeeding. Feeding pattern concerns were lower for the intervention group across all weeks. Low risk experienced mothers had increased concerns with milk production at Weeks 12, 16, and 20. Conclusions: The mothers' comfort level in breastfeeding should be assessed periodically rather than assume that all is going well. Concerns about milk production could be triggered by the mother's return to work, by the infant's growth spurts, or a combination of factors. This is a serious concern as fear of inadequate milk supply is the primary reason mothers wean earlier than intended. Other concerns were less common and less predictable thus necessitating that care providers individualize their care. Implications: Experienced as well as inexperienced mothers had breast feeding concerns over 20 weeks. To meet American Academy of Pediatrics 1997 recommendation that women breastfeed for one year and the WHO recommendations that women breastfeed for 6 months, nurses must address concerns of breastfeeding mothers. Nurses cannot assume that all is going well with breastfeeding mothers; inquiries should be made at each encounter and appropriate advice and support given.

Repository Posting Date:
26-Oct-2011
Date of Publication:
Jul-2002
Sponsors:
Sigma Theta Tau International

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.typePresentationen_GB
dc.titleConcerns of Breastfeeding Mothers: The First 20 Weeksen_GB
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10755/151847-
dc.description.abstract<table><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-title">Concerns of Breastfeeding Mothers: The First 20 Weeks</td></tr><tr class="item-sponsor"><td class="label">Conference Sponsor:</td><td class="value">Sigma Theta Tau International</td></tr><tr class="item-year"><td class="label">Conference Year:</td><td class="value">2002</td></tr><tr class="item-conference-date"><td class="label">Conference Date:</td><td class="value">July, 2002</td></tr><tr class="item-author"><td class="label">Author:</td><td class="value">Perry, Shannon, PhD</td></tr><tr class="item-institute"><td class="label">P.I. Institution Name:</td><td class="value">San Francisco State University</td></tr><tr class="item-author-title"><td class="label">Title:</td><td class="value">Professor</td></tr><tr class="item-email"><td class="label">Email:</td><td class="value">seperry@sfsu.edu</td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-abstract">Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the concerns of breastfeeding mothers during the first 20 weeks postpartum and determine whether the type and number of concerns were related to breastfeeding patterns at 20 weeks postpartum. Design: The study was a secondary analysis of data collected in a study of insufficient milk supply and was a replication of a portion of Phase I of this longitudinal study. Population, Sample, Setting, Years: Participants in the study were a convenience sample of 326 breastfeeding women who were recruited from 10 hospitals in Wyoming, Colorado, Iowa and Illinois. Inclusion criteria were that the mothers aged 19 years or older, had given birth to their first or second baby who was a healthy, singleton, term infant weighing at least 2,500 grams and being 37 weeks or greater gestation, and were breastfeeding. Data were collected in the mid 1990's; the secondary analysis occurred in 2000. Concept or Variables Studied Together or Intervention and Outcome Variable(s): Breastfeeding concerns (breast comfort, milk production, infant behavior, feeding technique, feeding pattern, alternative feeding, and other, e.g., jaundice) were the variables of interest. Methods: In the primary study, the sample was divided into three groups based on their risk for insufficient milk supply: control, comparison, and intervention with primiparous and multiparous women in each group. The high risk mothers were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. Mothers in the intervention group received breastfeeding support and advice on the telephone and in home visits; the control group received usual care from their primary health care provider and only calls for data collection but no advice from the researchers. The low risk women formed the comparison group. The high risk control and low risk comparison mothers were followed by telephone by an interviewer with no health care background at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 14, 16, and 20 weeks after birth about their breastfeeding concerns, specific breastfeeding concerns, and whether their concerns were resolved. Findings: The average age of the mothers was 27.9 years, the mean years of education was 14.4, and 84% were married. The majority of participants were Caucasian (89 %). Frequencies of concerns by group were calculated. The concerns of the three groups as well as the concerns of experienced and inexperienced mothers were compared. Proportion of mothers expressing concerns decreased over time, but some concerns such as nipple tenderness and breast engorgement persisted over the 20 weeks. The number and type of concerns were examined in relation to early weaning or continued breastfeeding. Feeding pattern concerns were lower for the intervention group across all weeks. Low risk experienced mothers had increased concerns with milk production at Weeks 12, 16, and 20. Conclusions: The mothers' comfort level in breastfeeding should be assessed periodically rather than assume that all is going well. Concerns about milk production could be triggered by the mother's return to work, by the infant's growth spurts, or a combination of factors. This is a serious concern as fear of inadequate milk supply is the primary reason mothers wean earlier than intended. Other concerns were less common and less predictable thus necessitating that care providers individualize their care. Implications: Experienced as well as inexperienced mothers had breast feeding concerns over 20 weeks. To meet American Academy of Pediatrics 1997 recommendation that women breastfeed for one year and the WHO recommendations that women breastfeed for 6 months, nurses must address concerns of breastfeeding mothers. Nurses cannot assume that all is going well with breastfeeding mothers; inquiries should be made at each encounter and appropriate advice and support given.<br/><br/></td></tr></table>en_GB
dc.date.available2011-10-26T11:15:41Z-
dc.date.issued2002-07en_GB
dc.date.accessioned2011-10-26T11:15:41Z-
dc.description.sponsorshipSigma Theta Tau Internationalen_GB
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