Cross Culture Comparisons of CVD Risk Factors in Children: Obesity and Cholesterol in Japanese, French, and American Children

2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10755/152643
Type:
Presentation
Title:
Cross Culture Comparisons of CVD Risk Factors in Children: Obesity and Cholesterol in Japanese, French, and American Children
Abstract:
Cross Culture Comparisons of CVD Risk Factors in Children: Obesity and Cholesterol in Japanese, French, and American Children
Conference Sponsor:Sigma Theta Tau International
Conference Year:2002
Conference Date:July, 2002
Author:Bingham, Mona
P.I. Institution Name:University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Introduction: Over 50 percent of all deaths in both developed and developing countries are attributed to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although CVD is primarily thought of as an adult disease, it is increasingly apparent that the risk factors for future heart disease begin in childhood and persist or track over time. High cholesterol and obesity are recognized risk factors for CVD that differ in the US, France, and Japan. If we compare the prevalence of early risk factors of cholesterol and obesity in children from various countries and cultures where genetic background and lifestyles would be expected to differ, we may gain valuable information regarding the epidemiology of CVD in general and the prevalence of risk factors in children. Objectives: To describe and compare cholesterol, body mass index, and percent body fat in children from three different countries on three continents. Design: This secondary analysis of data from field trials was conducted with ANOVA, t-test and Chi Square to determine differences between groups, and by multiple linear regression. Population/Sample/Setting/Years: Participants were 3931 fourth grade children from four ethnic groups in three countries: France, Japan, and US (Caucasian and African-American children). French children (n=586) were from a semi-rural area in the north of France, Japanese children (n=1,872) were from a city in the center of Japan. American children from North Carolina included 1,226 Caucasian and African-American children. Mean age was 9.3 years and slightly over half (51.3%) were boys. Concept or Variables Studied: This study compared physiological variables of serum cholesterol and two measures of obesity (body mass index [BMI] and percent body fat) in children of different ethnicities. Methods: Cholesterol was determined on capillary blood in France and the US and on venous blood in Japan. Height, weight and skinfolds were measured in all locations. ANOVA was used to examine differences between ethnic groups. Physiologic variables differed by group for all (p=.0001). Findings: All variables differed by group (p=.0001 for all). Height, weight and BMI were significantly different in the four groups (p < .001 for all): BMI was highest in US African-American (19.2 ± 3.9) followed by US Caucasian children (18.6 ± 3.6), Japanese (17.3 ± 2.6) and then French children (17.0 ± 2.4). Percent body fat was highest in the US Caucasian children (23.1 ± 10.3) and was lowest in French children (17.7 ± 6.8). Total cholesterol was highest in French children (183.0 ± 34.6 mg/dl) and lowest in US Caucasian children (164.3 ± 29.1 mg/dl). BMI was significantly associated with cholesterol in all groups except French youth, and the associations varied by gender. Conclusions: There is great variation in all of these measures by country, and the association between obesity and cholesterol may vary by culture or ethnicity, as well as by gender. The following patterns were identified in these children. Japanese children were thin with moderate total serum cholesterol. BMI and cholesterol correlation low (r=.14, p < .001). French children were thin with high serum cholesterol. BMI and cholesterol correlation was very low (r=.08, not significant). U. S. Caucasian children were not thin and had a moderate serum cholesterol. BMI and cholesterol correlation was low to moderate (r=.23, p < .001). U. S. African American children tended to be overweight with a fairly high serum cholesterol. Lowest relationship between BMI and cholesterol (r=.06, not significant). Implications: CVD is a major health problem even in countries with relatively low numbers and obesity is quickly becoming a worldwide epidemic. CVD is primarily thought of as an adult disease but with acknowledged evidence that the risk factors for future heart disease begin in childhood and persist or track over time, it becomes increasingly important to study early influences on the risk factors associated with CVD. Comparing the prevalence of these early risk factors in children from various countries and ethnicities with differing genetic backgrounds and lifestyles provides valuable information regarding the epidemiology of CVD in general and the prevalence of risk factors in children. This comparison supports the need for further study and comparisons of different ethnicities to help us better understand these associations, learn the causes, and positively influence the health of our world. Future studies should also compare lifestyle factors such as physical activity and eating habits.

Repository Posting Date:
26-Oct-2011
Date of Publication:
Jul-2002
Sponsors:
Sigma Theta Tau International

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.typePresentationen_GB
dc.titleCross Culture Comparisons of CVD Risk Factors in Children: Obesity and Cholesterol in Japanese, French, and American Childrenen_GB
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10755/152643-
dc.description.abstract<table><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-title">Cross Culture Comparisons of CVD Risk Factors in Children: Obesity and Cholesterol in Japanese, French, and American Children</td></tr><tr class="item-sponsor"><td class="label">Conference Sponsor:</td><td class="value">Sigma Theta Tau International</td></tr><tr class="item-year"><td class="label">Conference Year:</td><td class="value">2002</td></tr><tr class="item-conference-date"><td class="label">Conference Date:</td><td class="value">July, 2002</td></tr><tr class="item-author"><td class="label">Author:</td><td class="value">Bingham, Mona</td></tr><tr class="item-institute"><td class="label">P.I. Institution Name:</td><td class="value">University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill</td></tr><tr class="item-email"><td class="label">Email:</td><td class="value">monab@email.unc.edu</td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-abstract">Introduction: Over 50 percent of all deaths in both developed and developing countries are attributed to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although CVD is primarily thought of as an adult disease, it is increasingly apparent that the risk factors for future heart disease begin in childhood and persist or track over time. High cholesterol and obesity are recognized risk factors for CVD that differ in the US, France, and Japan. If we compare the prevalence of early risk factors of cholesterol and obesity in children from various countries and cultures where genetic background and lifestyles would be expected to differ, we may gain valuable information regarding the epidemiology of CVD in general and the prevalence of risk factors in children. Objectives: To describe and compare cholesterol, body mass index, and percent body fat in children from three different countries on three continents. Design: This secondary analysis of data from field trials was conducted with ANOVA, t-test and Chi Square to determine differences between groups, and by multiple linear regression. Population/Sample/Setting/Years: Participants were 3931 fourth grade children from four ethnic groups in three countries: France, Japan, and US (Caucasian and African-American children). French children (n=586) were from a semi-rural area in the north of France, Japanese children (n=1,872) were from a city in the center of Japan. American children from North Carolina included 1,226 Caucasian and African-American children. Mean age was 9.3 years and slightly over half (51.3%) were boys. Concept or Variables Studied: This study compared physiological variables of serum cholesterol and two measures of obesity (body mass index [BMI] and percent body fat) in children of different ethnicities. Methods: Cholesterol was determined on capillary blood in France and the US and on venous blood in Japan. Height, weight and skinfolds were measured in all locations. ANOVA was used to examine differences between ethnic groups. Physiologic variables differed by group for all (p=.0001). Findings: All variables differed by group (p=.0001 for all). Height, weight and BMI were significantly different in the four groups (p &lt; .001 for all): BMI was highest in US African-American (19.2 &plusmn; 3.9) followed by US Caucasian children (18.6 &plusmn; 3.6), Japanese (17.3 &plusmn; 2.6) and then French children (17.0 &plusmn; 2.4). Percent body fat was highest in the US Caucasian children (23.1 &plusmn; 10.3) and was lowest in French children (17.7 &plusmn; 6.8). Total cholesterol was highest in French children (183.0 &plusmn; 34.6 mg/dl) and lowest in US Caucasian children (164.3 &plusmn; 29.1 mg/dl). BMI was significantly associated with cholesterol in all groups except French youth, and the associations varied by gender. Conclusions: There is great variation in all of these measures by country, and the association between obesity and cholesterol may vary by culture or ethnicity, as well as by gender. The following patterns were identified in these children. Japanese children were thin with moderate total serum cholesterol. BMI and cholesterol correlation low (r=.14, p &lt; .001). French children were thin with high serum cholesterol. BMI and cholesterol correlation was very low (r=.08, not significant). U. S. Caucasian children were not thin and had a moderate serum cholesterol. BMI and cholesterol correlation was low to moderate (r=.23, p &lt; .001). U. S. African American children tended to be overweight with a fairly high serum cholesterol. Lowest relationship between BMI and cholesterol (r=.06, not significant). Implications: CVD is a major health problem even in countries with relatively low numbers and obesity is quickly becoming a worldwide epidemic. CVD is primarily thought of as an adult disease but with acknowledged evidence that the risk factors for future heart disease begin in childhood and persist or track over time, it becomes increasingly important to study early influences on the risk factors associated with CVD. Comparing the prevalence of these early risk factors in children from various countries and ethnicities with differing genetic backgrounds and lifestyles provides valuable information regarding the epidemiology of CVD in general and the prevalence of risk factors in children. This comparison supports the need for further study and comparisons of different ethnicities to help us better understand these associations, learn the causes, and positively influence the health of our world. Future studies should also compare lifestyle factors such as physical activity and eating habits.<br/><br/></td></tr></table>en_GB
dc.date.available2011-10-26T11:44:04Z-
dc.date.issued2002-07en_GB
dc.date.accessioned2011-10-26T11:44:04Z-
dc.description.sponsorshipSigma Theta Tau Internationalen_GB
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