A Comparison of Leadership Skills and Attributes of Women Leaders and Nurse Executives: Implications for the Education of Nurse Leaders

2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10755/155780
Type:
Presentation
Title:
A Comparison of Leadership Skills and Attributes of Women Leaders and Nurse Executives: Implications for the Education of Nurse Leaders
Abstract:
A Comparison of Leadership Skills and Attributes of Women Leaders and Nurse Executives: Implications for the Education of Nurse Leaders
Conference Sponsor:Sigma Theta Tau International
Conference Year:2002
Conference Date:July, 2002
Author:Carroll, Theresa, PhD
P.I. Institution Name:University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
Title:Professor and Associate Dean
Background/Objective: The lack of women in leadership positions is a worldwide phenomenon whether in commercial, industrial, military or the public sector (Eagly, Makhijani & Klonsky, 1992). Yet in the global health care arena, it is recognized that women are entering into leadership positions (Fubini, 2000). Many of these women leaders are nurses. This study used an expert panel of women leaders that included members of the local organization of nurse executives (NEs) to answer the question "What skills and attributes will women leaders need to succeed in the 21st century?" Design: This study used a descriptive comparative design in which the skills/attributes identified by women leaders were compared to the skills/attributes identified by the NEs. Population, Sample, Setting, Years: In Spring, 2001, a purposive sample of 508 women leaders from organizations that had leadership as a membership criteria were invited to participate. One hundred thirty seven women including 7 nurse executives completed both rounds of the mailed survey (response rate=27%). The participants reside in the 4th largest US City with strong international economic linkages. The nurse executives work in the largest medical center in the world with a multiethnic workforce caring for a multicultural international patient population. Concept: Leadership skills/attributes were defined as abilities and qualities that emphasize goal achievement and change. Leadership positions are those formal and informal roles in organizations where power is used to translate intention into reality (Bennis & Nanus,1985). Methods: This study used a modified two round Delphi method with a 63 item mailed survey to develop consensus on what skills/attributes would be necessary for women to succeed in the 21st century. The survey was designed from a content analysis of the leadership literature from 1990-2000, reviewed by a panel of content experts, and pilot tested to assure clarity, readability and ease of scoring. A principal components factor analysis followed by a promax rotation was used on data from round two to assess the relations among the items and investigate the structure of the relations. Since the original survey asked about leadership skills/attributes in general, semi-structured follow-up interviews were conducted with NEs to more fully explore the study results in relation to nursing practice (Fontana & Frey, 1994). Interviews were tape recorded, transcribed and coded for major themes and concepts (Boyatzis, 1998). Findings: Seventy-eight percent of the women leaders were age 40 or older; 16.9% were minority; and 90% had a baccalaureate or higher degree. By comparison the NEs were the same age, less racially diverse and more highly educated than the sample of women leaders. For the women leaders six factors were identified through principal components analysis: 1) personal integrity, 2) strategic vision/action orientation, 3) team building/communication skills, 4) management and technical competencies, 5) people skills (e.g., empowering others, networking, valuing diversity, working collaboratively), and 6) personal survival skills/attributes (e.g., political sensitivity, self-direction, self-reliance, courage, and candor). The items that received the highest level of agreement regarding importance for both groups were contained in the personal integrity factor, which included ethical standards, trustworthiness, and credibility. Due to the size of the sample, effect size was calculated on the factors identified by women leaders and NEs and indicated small to moderate differences between NEs and women leaders on the factors related to personal integrity, team building and people skills. Compared to women leaders, the NEs indicated that personal integrity was more important and team building and people skills less important for successful leadership. Conclusions: Higher education appears to be related to leadership recognition. In most cases NE positions require a baccalaureate or higher degree. Findings support the personal integrity factor as containing the most important attributes necessary for women leaders and NEs to succeed. NEs were able to discuss, elaborate and explicate the relative importance of the identified factors in the development of nurse leaders/administrators. Implications: Findings from this study may be used to develop content and criteria for leadership development programs. Any program that is designed to develop future leaders must emphasize the ethical standards required of leaders and leadership positions. Additional exploration needs to be done with both male and female nurse leaders, managers and executives in the US and other countries to determine whether skills/attributes required of successful leaders differ. Findings from these studies may provide information for revising curricula designed to prepare future nurse leaders. This research was funded by the Women's Foundation in one US City.

Repository Posting Date:
26-Oct-2011
Date of Publication:
Jul-2002
Sponsors:
Sigma Theta Tau International

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.typePresentationen_GB
dc.titleA Comparison of Leadership Skills and Attributes of Women Leaders and Nurse Executives: Implications for the Education of Nurse Leadersen_GB
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10755/155780-
dc.description.abstract<table><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-title">A Comparison of Leadership Skills and Attributes of Women Leaders and Nurse Executives: Implications for the Education of Nurse Leaders</td></tr><tr class="item-sponsor"><td class="label">Conference Sponsor:</td><td class="value">Sigma Theta Tau International</td></tr><tr class="item-year"><td class="label">Conference Year:</td><td class="value">2002</td></tr><tr class="item-conference-date"><td class="label">Conference Date:</td><td class="value">July, 2002</td></tr><tr class="item-author"><td class="label">Author:</td><td class="value">Carroll, Theresa, PhD</td></tr><tr class="item-institute"><td class="label">P.I. Institution Name:</td><td class="value">University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston</td></tr><tr class="item-author-title"><td class="label">Title:</td><td class="value">Professor and Associate Dean</td></tr><tr class="item-email"><td class="label">Email:</td><td class="value">theresa.l.carroll@uth.tmc.edu</td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-abstract">Background/Objective: The lack of women in leadership positions is a worldwide phenomenon whether in commercial, industrial, military or the public sector (Eagly, Makhijani &amp; Klonsky, 1992). Yet in the global health care arena, it is recognized that women are entering into leadership positions (Fubini, 2000). Many of these women leaders are nurses. This study used an expert panel of women leaders that included members of the local organization of nurse executives (NEs) to answer the question &quot;What skills and attributes will women leaders need to succeed in the 21st century?&quot; Design: This study used a descriptive comparative design in which the skills/attributes identified by women leaders were compared to the skills/attributes identified by the NEs. Population, Sample, Setting, Years: In Spring, 2001, a purposive sample of 508 women leaders from organizations that had leadership as a membership criteria were invited to participate. One hundred thirty seven women including 7 nurse executives completed both rounds of the mailed survey (response rate=27%). The participants reside in the 4th largest US City with strong international economic linkages. The nurse executives work in the largest medical center in the world with a multiethnic workforce caring for a multicultural international patient population. Concept: Leadership skills/attributes were defined as abilities and qualities that emphasize goal achievement and change. Leadership positions are those formal and informal roles in organizations where power is used to translate intention into reality (Bennis &amp; Nanus,1985). Methods: This study used a modified two round Delphi method with a 63 item mailed survey to develop consensus on what skills/attributes would be necessary for women to succeed in the 21st century. The survey was designed from a content analysis of the leadership literature from 1990-2000, reviewed by a panel of content experts, and pilot tested to assure clarity, readability and ease of scoring. A principal components factor analysis followed by a promax rotation was used on data from round two to assess the relations among the items and investigate the structure of the relations. Since the original survey asked about leadership skills/attributes in general, semi-structured follow-up interviews were conducted with NEs to more fully explore the study results in relation to nursing practice (Fontana &amp; Frey, 1994). Interviews were tape recorded, transcribed and coded for major themes and concepts (Boyatzis, 1998). Findings: Seventy-eight percent of the women leaders were age 40 or older; 16.9% were minority; and 90% had a baccalaureate or higher degree. By comparison the NEs were the same age, less racially diverse and more highly educated than the sample of women leaders. For the women leaders six factors were identified through principal components analysis: 1) personal integrity, 2) strategic vision/action orientation, 3) team building/communication skills, 4) management and technical competencies, 5) people skills (e.g., empowering others, networking, valuing diversity, working collaboratively), and 6) personal survival skills/attributes (e.g., political sensitivity, self-direction, self-reliance, courage, and candor). The items that received the highest level of agreement regarding importance for both groups were contained in the personal integrity factor, which included ethical standards, trustworthiness, and credibility. Due to the size of the sample, effect size was calculated on the factors identified by women leaders and NEs and indicated small to moderate differences between NEs and women leaders on the factors related to personal integrity, team building and people skills. Compared to women leaders, the NEs indicated that personal integrity was more important and team building and people skills less important for successful leadership. Conclusions: Higher education appears to be related to leadership recognition. In most cases NE positions require a baccalaureate or higher degree. Findings support the personal integrity factor as containing the most important attributes necessary for women leaders and NEs to succeed. NEs were able to discuss, elaborate and explicate the relative importance of the identified factors in the development of nurse leaders/administrators. Implications: Findings from this study may be used to develop content and criteria for leadership development programs. Any program that is designed to develop future leaders must emphasize the ethical standards required of leaders and leadership positions. Additional exploration needs to be done with both male and female nurse leaders, managers and executives in the US and other countries to determine whether skills/attributes required of successful leaders differ. Findings from these studies may provide information for revising curricula designed to prepare future nurse leaders. This research was funded by the Women's Foundation in one US City.<br/><br/></td></tr></table>en_GB
dc.date.available2011-10-26T14:10:02Z-
dc.date.issued2002-07en_GB
dc.date.accessioned2011-10-26T14:10:02Z-
dc.description.sponsorshipSigma Theta Tau Internationalen_GB
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