Structural Equation Modeling Approach to Exploring Gender Differences in Physical Activity among Taiwanese Adolescents

2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10755/155782
Type:
Presentation
Title:
Structural Equation Modeling Approach to Exploring Gender Differences in Physical Activity among Taiwanese Adolescents
Abstract:
Structural Equation Modeling Approach to Exploring Gender Differences in Physical Activity among Taiwanese Adolescents
Conference Sponsor:Sigma Theta Tau International
Conference Year:2002
Conference Date:July, 2002
Author:Wu, Tsu-Yin
P.I. Institution Name:Eastern Michigan University
Title:Assistant Professor
Background: Regular physical activity is considered an important component of a health promoting lifestyle. National and international health authorities recommend promoting physical activity as one of the top priorities for optimal health and well-being. Identification of the predictors of physical activity in relation to gender, ethnicity and age is essential for the development of intervention programs that can be tailored to the specific needs of adolescent groups. Objective: Guided by the Health Promotion Model, this exploratory study identified gender differences of Taiwanese adolescents in interpersonal influences, physical activity-related cognitions and physical activity. Direct and indirect relationships between interpersonal influences, physical activity-related cognitions and physical activity were examined. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional design was used to measure interpersonal influences, physical activity-related cognitions and physical activity. Sample: The study sample included 977 eighth graders from two middle schools in the Taipei School District, Taiwan. Questionnaires were returned by 969 participants which yields for a 99.2% response rate. Variables: Interpersonal influences included social support, norms and modeling; physical activity-related cognitions included perceived self-efficacy, perceived benefits, perceived barriers. The outcome variable in this study was physical activity. Methods: All the eighth graders from two selected schools in Taipei who met the inclusion criteria were asked to complete self-administered questionnaires. Data were collected in classroom settings and the investigator remained in the room during questionnaire administration and answered any questions posed by the adolescents. Data were analyzed using SPSS for ANOVA to test gender differences among variables and AMOS 3.6 to examine the direct and indirect effects between studied variables. Findings: On average, the amount of time per day that male adolescents reported engaging in physical activity (M=54.4 min.) was twice that of their female counterparts (M=26.9 min.). In addition, female adolescents, compared to the males, reported significantly lower perceived physical activity self-efficacy (F=74.20, p < .001), fewer perceived benefits (F=16.23, p < .001), and greater perceived barriers (F=18.34, p < .001). Male adolescents reported less modeling than their female counterparts (F=11.28, p=.01). The goodness of fit indexes indicated that the model tested had an excellent fit to the data for both gender groups. The testing on path models for both male and female Taiwanese adolescents showed that peers had a significant direct effect as well as indirect effect on physical activity through perceived self-efficacy. Nevertheless, parents did not emerge to have significant direct influences on physical activity or on any cognition variable (i.e., perceived self-efficacy, perceived benefits and perceived barriers) for male adolescents. For female adolescents, parents also did not exert a direct influence on their physical activity, but had a direct positive influence on their perceived benefits and a marginal negative influence on their perceived barriers. Conclusions: Differences in interpersonal influences and cognitions were noted by gender group. Taiwanese adolescent girls had less perceived self-efficacy and benefits and more barriers related to physical activity than boys. For interpersonal influences, girls compared to boys perceived significantly more positive social support, modeling and norms from parents to be active, but significantly less social support and norms from their peers. The results from structural equation modeling indicated that peers exerted direct as well as indirect influences on physical activity for both genders. Among all examined variables, perceived self-efficacy was the most significant predictor in physical activity for these adolescents. Implications: The findings of this study provide preliminary information for physical education teachers and coaches in designing physical activity interventions targeted to Taiwanese adolescents. Despite the strong emphasis on the family bond in Taiwanese culture, peer influences appeared to have a direct impact on the time spent in physical activity for these Taiwanese eighth graders. Peers also seem to provide the role models and support for physical activity for these adolescents. When parents set expectations for participating in physical activity for their children without providing the necessary support or regularly exercising themselves, children may develop negative attitudes toward physical activity which may result in low levels of physical activity. In addition, the findings strongly support the importance of perceived self-efficacy for influencing the behavior of participation in physical activity for both gender groups of Taiwanese adolescents.

Repository Posting Date:
26-Oct-2011
Date of Publication:
Jul-2002
Sponsors:
Sigma Theta Tau International

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.typePresentationen_GB
dc.titleStructural Equation Modeling Approach to Exploring Gender Differences in Physical Activity among Taiwanese Adolescentsen_GB
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10755/155782-
dc.description.abstract<table><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-title">Structural Equation Modeling Approach to Exploring Gender Differences in Physical Activity among Taiwanese Adolescents</td></tr><tr class="item-sponsor"><td class="label">Conference Sponsor:</td><td class="value">Sigma Theta Tau International</td></tr><tr class="item-year"><td class="label">Conference Year:</td><td class="value">2002</td></tr><tr class="item-conference-date"><td class="label">Conference Date:</td><td class="value">July, 2002</td></tr><tr class="item-author"><td class="label">Author:</td><td class="value">Wu, Tsu-Yin</td></tr><tr class="item-institute"><td class="label">P.I. Institution Name:</td><td class="value">Eastern Michigan University</td></tr><tr class="item-author-title"><td class="label">Title:</td><td class="value">Assistant Professor</td></tr><tr class="item-email"><td class="label">Email:</td><td class="value">tsu-yin.wu@emich.edu</td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-abstract">Background: Regular physical activity is considered an important component of a health promoting lifestyle. National and international health authorities recommend promoting physical activity as one of the top priorities for optimal health and well-being. Identification of the predictors of physical activity in relation to gender, ethnicity and age is essential for the development of intervention programs that can be tailored to the specific needs of adolescent groups. Objective: Guided by the Health Promotion Model, this exploratory study identified gender differences of Taiwanese adolescents in interpersonal influences, physical activity-related cognitions and physical activity. Direct and indirect relationships between interpersonal influences, physical activity-related cognitions and physical activity were examined. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional design was used to measure interpersonal influences, physical activity-related cognitions and physical activity. Sample: The study sample included 977 eighth graders from two middle schools in the Taipei School District, Taiwan. Questionnaires were returned by 969 participants which yields for a 99.2% response rate. Variables: Interpersonal influences included social support, norms and modeling; physical activity-related cognitions included perceived self-efficacy, perceived benefits, perceived barriers. The outcome variable in this study was physical activity. Methods: All the eighth graders from two selected schools in Taipei who met the inclusion criteria were asked to complete self-administered questionnaires. Data were collected in classroom settings and the investigator remained in the room during questionnaire administration and answered any questions posed by the adolescents. Data were analyzed using SPSS for ANOVA to test gender differences among variables and AMOS 3.6 to examine the direct and indirect effects between studied variables. Findings: On average, the amount of time per day that male adolescents reported engaging in physical activity (M=54.4 min.) was twice that of their female counterparts (M=26.9 min.). In addition, female adolescents, compared to the males, reported significantly lower perceived physical activity self-efficacy (F=74.20, p &lt; .001), fewer perceived benefits (F=16.23, p &lt; .001), and greater perceived barriers (F=18.34, p &lt; .001). Male adolescents reported less modeling than their female counterparts (F=11.28, p=.01). The goodness of fit indexes indicated that the model tested had an excellent fit to the data for both gender groups. The testing on path models for both male and female Taiwanese adolescents showed that peers had a significant direct effect as well as indirect effect on physical activity through perceived self-efficacy. Nevertheless, parents did not emerge to have significant direct influences on physical activity or on any cognition variable (i.e., perceived self-efficacy, perceived benefits and perceived barriers) for male adolescents. For female adolescents, parents also did not exert a direct influence on their physical activity, but had a direct positive influence on their perceived benefits and a marginal negative influence on their perceived barriers. Conclusions: Differences in interpersonal influences and cognitions were noted by gender group. Taiwanese adolescent girls had less perceived self-efficacy and benefits and more barriers related to physical activity than boys. For interpersonal influences, girls compared to boys perceived significantly more positive social support, modeling and norms from parents to be active, but significantly less social support and norms from their peers. The results from structural equation modeling indicated that peers exerted direct as well as indirect influences on physical activity for both genders. Among all examined variables, perceived self-efficacy was the most significant predictor in physical activity for these adolescents. Implications: The findings of this study provide preliminary information for physical education teachers and coaches in designing physical activity interventions targeted to Taiwanese adolescents. Despite the strong emphasis on the family bond in Taiwanese culture, peer influences appeared to have a direct impact on the time spent in physical activity for these Taiwanese eighth graders. Peers also seem to provide the role models and support for physical activity for these adolescents. When parents set expectations for participating in physical activity for their children without providing the necessary support or regularly exercising themselves, children may develop negative attitudes toward physical activity which may result in low levels of physical activity. In addition, the findings strongly support the importance of perceived self-efficacy for influencing the behavior of participation in physical activity for both gender groups of Taiwanese adolescents.<br/><br/></td></tr></table>en_GB
dc.date.available2011-10-26T14:10:09Z-
dc.date.issued2002-07en_GB
dc.date.accessioned2011-10-26T14:10:09Z-
dc.description.sponsorshipSigma Theta Tau Internationalen_GB
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