2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10755/155790
Type:
Presentation
Title:
The Development of a Racial Identity Instrument for African-Americans
Abstract:
The Development of a Racial Identity Instrument for African-Americans
Conference Sponsor:Sigma Theta Tau International
Conference Year:2002
Conference Date:July, 2002
Author:Johnson, Rolanda
P.I. Institution Name:Vanderbilt University
Title:Assistant Professor
Objective: African Americans have disproportionately higher mortality and morbidity rates than Caucasians in the United States. Biologic factors and lifestyle practices contribute to the development and progression of many diseases. Lifestyle practices often are influenced by one's racial identity. Identity includes one's overall self-concept and the adoption of personal behaviors and identification with a larger group of people who share those characteristics. Nevertheless, many racial identity measures are not reliable and were not developed from interviews with the actual population. Capturing this information may lead to a better understanding of how racial identity influences health behaviors. The purpose of this study was to construct a reliable measure of racial identity. Design: A methodological plan was used to develop factors of racial identity and to test psychometrics of each. Quantitative and qualitative methods were incorporated based on Thomas Cross's theory of racial identity. Setting: Subjects were recruited from several data collection sites. These included barber shops, beauty salons, and churches. Population: Several samples were used in the development of this instrument. The instrument items were developed using focus groups. Two focus groups of African Americans residing in rural (n=10) and metropolitan (n=12) southeastern cities of the United States were used to develop survey items. The sample used for testing the instrument consisted of 301 African Americans. This sample contained 36% (n=108) males and 45% (n=130) were married. The mean age was 37.8 (SD=13.8) with 30% (n=90) completing the 12th grade and 19% (n=57) reported having completed 2 years of college. Personal incomes less than $20,000 per year were reported for 42% (n=126) of the sample. Methods: After the development of instrument items, three experts reviewed the items for clarity, readability, and coherence. Congruence between the experts on the items was 100%. An instrument consisting of 110-items on a five-point Likert scale ranging from (1) strongly disagree to (5) strongly agree was then distributed. Several analytical techniques were used to identify characteristics and dimensions of racial identity. These dimensions were centered on perceptions of racial identity during childhood, becoming aware of racial differences, and current coping strategies of dealing with racial identity conflicts. Variable Studied: racial identity Findings: After exploring several analytical strategies, principal component analysis with a varimax rotation yielded a two-factor solution. Forty-seven items were eliminated with loadings <. 30 or theoretical incongruence with other factor items. Factor 1 consisting of 31 items was named racial integration. Higher scores reflect individuals that are more accepting of racial differences and have a more positive self-image. Item examples include "I have always thought positive about myself", and "I love everybody regardless of race". Factor 2 consisting of 32 items was named racial disharmony. Higher scores reflect that the individual is not trusting of other races, and often refers to other races negatively. Item examples include "Messages from society told me I was less than other races" and "My acceptance level of other races is guarded." Eigen values were 12.1 for factor 1 and 8.8 for factor 2. Reliability was tested using Cronbach alphas. These were .93 for factor 1 and .90 for factor 2. Conclusions: A reliable measure of racial identity for African Americans was developed. This study supports previous literature that racial identity is a multidimensional construct. Similar to previous research, the factors are at opposite ends of a continuum. Factor 1 reflects individuals that are more positive about their own race and can accept other races as well. Factor 2, however, reflects individuals that have negative feelings about other races as well as their own self-concept. Implications: The literature supports that persons with different identity levels prefer different health care workers based on race. Identity also seems to impact an individual's behaviors as well. Now with a more reliable measure of racial identity these previous findings can be further explored and validated. It has been substantiated that persons with higher levels of self-concept have more positive racial identity levels which have been shown to impact other behaviors positively. If in fact health behaviors vary by level of racial identity, then better measurement should contribute to interventions designed to improve the health status of African Americans. This study is significant in that a theoretically driven and reliable instrument from an African American perspective was developed.

Repository Posting Date:
26-Oct-2011
Date of Publication:
Jul-2002
Sponsors:
Sigma Theta Tau International

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.typePresentationen_GB
dc.titleThe Development of a Racial Identity Instrument for African-Americansen_GB
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10755/155790-
dc.description.abstract<table><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-title">The Development of a Racial Identity Instrument for African-Americans</td></tr><tr class="item-sponsor"><td class="label">Conference Sponsor:</td><td class="value">Sigma Theta Tau International</td></tr><tr class="item-year"><td class="label">Conference Year:</td><td class="value">2002</td></tr><tr class="item-conference-date"><td class="label">Conference Date:</td><td class="value">July, 2002</td></tr><tr class="item-author"><td class="label">Author:</td><td class="value">Johnson, Rolanda</td></tr><tr class="item-institute"><td class="label">P.I. Institution Name:</td><td class="value">Vanderbilt University</td></tr><tr class="item-author-title"><td class="label">Title:</td><td class="value">Assistant Professor</td></tr><tr class="item-email"><td class="label">Email:</td><td class="value">rolanda.johnson@vanderbilt.edu</td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-abstract">Objective: African Americans have disproportionately higher mortality and morbidity rates than Caucasians in the United States. Biologic factors and lifestyle practices contribute to the development and progression of many diseases. Lifestyle practices often are influenced by one's racial identity. Identity includes one's overall self-concept and the adoption of personal behaviors and identification with a larger group of people who share those characteristics. Nevertheless, many racial identity measures are not reliable and were not developed from interviews with the actual population. Capturing this information may lead to a better understanding of how racial identity influences health behaviors. The purpose of this study was to construct a reliable measure of racial identity. Design: A methodological plan was used to develop factors of racial identity and to test psychometrics of each. Quantitative and qualitative methods were incorporated based on Thomas Cross's theory of racial identity. Setting: Subjects were recruited from several data collection sites. These included barber shops, beauty salons, and churches. Population: Several samples were used in the development of this instrument. The instrument items were developed using focus groups. Two focus groups of African Americans residing in rural (n=10) and metropolitan (n=12) southeastern cities of the United States were used to develop survey items. The sample used for testing the instrument consisted of 301 African Americans. This sample contained 36% (n=108) males and 45% (n=130) were married. The mean age was 37.8 (SD=13.8) with 30% (n=90) completing the 12th grade and 19% (n=57) reported having completed 2 years of college. Personal incomes less than $20,000 per year were reported for 42% (n=126) of the sample. Methods: After the development of instrument items, three experts reviewed the items for clarity, readability, and coherence. Congruence between the experts on the items was 100%. An instrument consisting of 110-items on a five-point Likert scale ranging from (1) strongly disagree to (5) strongly agree was then distributed. Several analytical techniques were used to identify characteristics and dimensions of racial identity. These dimensions were centered on perceptions of racial identity during childhood, becoming aware of racial differences, and current coping strategies of dealing with racial identity conflicts. Variable Studied: racial identity Findings: After exploring several analytical strategies, principal component analysis with a varimax rotation yielded a two-factor solution. Forty-seven items were eliminated with loadings &lt;. 30 or theoretical incongruence with other factor items. Factor 1 consisting of 31 items was named racial integration. Higher scores reflect individuals that are more accepting of racial differences and have a more positive self-image. Item examples include &quot;I have always thought positive about myself&quot;, and &quot;I love everybody regardless of race&quot;. Factor 2 consisting of 32 items was named racial disharmony. Higher scores reflect that the individual is not trusting of other races, and often refers to other races negatively. Item examples include &quot;Messages from society told me I was less than other races&quot; and &quot;My acceptance level of other races is guarded.&quot; Eigen values were 12.1 for factor 1 and 8.8 for factor 2. Reliability was tested using Cronbach alphas. These were .93 for factor 1 and .90 for factor 2. Conclusions: A reliable measure of racial identity for African Americans was developed. This study supports previous literature that racial identity is a multidimensional construct. Similar to previous research, the factors are at opposite ends of a continuum. Factor 1 reflects individuals that are more positive about their own race and can accept other races as well. Factor 2, however, reflects individuals that have negative feelings about other races as well as their own self-concept. Implications: The literature supports that persons with different identity levels prefer different health care workers based on race. Identity also seems to impact an individual's behaviors as well. Now with a more reliable measure of racial identity these previous findings can be further explored and validated. It has been substantiated that persons with higher levels of self-concept have more positive racial identity levels which have been shown to impact other behaviors positively. If in fact health behaviors vary by level of racial identity, then better measurement should contribute to interventions designed to improve the health status of African Americans. This study is significant in that a theoretically driven and reliable instrument from an African American perspective was developed.<br/><br/></td></tr></table>en_GB
dc.date.available2011-10-26T14:10:35Z-
dc.date.issued2002-07en_GB
dc.date.accessioned2011-10-26T14:10:35Z-
dc.description.sponsorshipSigma Theta Tau Internationalen_GB
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