2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10755/155795
Type:
Presentation
Title:
Maternal Employment: Navigating Work, Health, and Family Issues
Abstract:
Maternal Employment: Navigating Work, Health, and Family Issues
Conference Sponsor:Sigma Theta Tau International
Conference Year:2002
Conference Date:July, 2002
Author:Nichols, Mary, PhD
P.I. Institution Name:Virginia Commonwealth University
Title:Assistant Professor
Objectives: The first objective of this study was to examine relationships among demographic, perinatal, work, health and family variables in employed, postpartum mothers. A second objective was to determine which independent variables explain or predict maternal health and family well-being outcomes for women who return to paid employment during the first year postpartum. A majority of American women, who return to work after the birth of new child, do so within two to three months postpartum. Married women in the United States report that they return to the workforce primarily because of economic necessity, as generally two incomes are required to maintain a modest middle class standard of living. The problem, then, is how does postpartum employment affect quality of life for a woman and her family? Design: A nonexperimental, descriptive correlational design was selected. Population, Sample, Setting, Years: The study population included married, employed mothers, living in the United States, with at least one child less than 13 months of age. Subjects were obtained from a convenience sample and included 78 women aged 22-42. Mothers were recruited from primary care offices and day care centers, as well as by word of mouth.The study started in December 2000 and ended in July 2001. Concept or Variables Studied Together: In addition to demographic and perinatal variables (including breast-feeding initiation and duration), work (coping and employment satisfaction), maternal health (psychosocial and physical), and family well-being (marital, parenting and family satisfaction) were the study's variables of interest. Methods: With human subjects approval, women who met study criteria were invited to participate and agreed to do so by signing an informed letter of consent and answering items on the research questionnaire, which were returned to the investigator in a stamped, addressed envelope. The subjects were required to answer forced choice and open-ended questions about demographic, perinatal, work, health and family variables. After the signed consent form and completed questionnaire were received, women were sent monetary compensation. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics, correlations, t-tests, and multiple regression analyses. Preliminary Findings: As hypothesized, higher levels of coping and employment satisfaction were positively correlated with higher levels of maternal health and family well-being. Additionally, older mothers with higher educational levels reported higher levels of flexibility and satisfaction with their work situation, which, in turn, were associated with higher levels of health and family well-being. Other findings indicated that perceived work flexibility, spousal support, and social support from others positively influenced successful navigation of multiple role responsibilities. Unfortunately, return to the workplace and subsequent work requirements had adverse effects on the initiation and duration of breast-feeding. Multiparous women were less likely to initiate breast-feeding with a second child, especially when they were not successful with combining lactation with employment in an earlier experience. Interestingly, first-time mothers appeared to have greater difficulty negotiating work, health, and family issues when compared to veteran mothers. Conclusions: In the long term, a mother's emotional and physical health seems to have a positive influence on work satisfaction and productivity, which will shape her ability to be sensitive to the needs of her family. In turn, family well-being depends on the economic contributions as well as the physical and emotional health of mothers. To optimize quality of life for childbearing families, future research is needed to develop and test interventions designed to help mothers navigate work, health, and family issues. The first step is a thorough understanding of issues faced by employed, postpartum mothers. Preliminary results from this study suggest that, in addition to increased support for all employed postpartum mothers, the needs of first-time mothers may be quite different than than those of veteran mothers. Implications: Specific interventions should be initiated during pregnancy to facilitate a woman's transition during postpartum return to the workplace. Ongoing support for employed mothers should continue through at least the first year postpartum. Based on the preliminary findings of this study, specific emphasis must be placed on interventions to improve breast-feeding rates, coping strategies, social support, work flexibility, and marital and family satisfaction to maximize quality of life for women. The overall goal of future research involving postpartum employed mothers is to foster the successful navigation of work, health, and family well being.

Repository Posting Date:
26-Oct-2011
Date of Publication:
Jul-2002
Sponsors:
Sigma Theta Tau International

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.typePresentationen_GB
dc.titleMaternal Employment: Navigating Work, Health, and Family Issuesen_GB
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10755/155795-
dc.description.abstract<table><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-title">Maternal Employment: Navigating Work, Health, and Family Issues</td></tr><tr class="item-sponsor"><td class="label">Conference Sponsor:</td><td class="value">Sigma Theta Tau International</td></tr><tr class="item-year"><td class="label">Conference Year:</td><td class="value">2002</td></tr><tr class="item-conference-date"><td class="label">Conference Date:</td><td class="value">July, 2002</td></tr><tr class="item-author"><td class="label">Author:</td><td class="value">Nichols, Mary, PhD</td></tr><tr class="item-institute"><td class="label">P.I. Institution Name:</td><td class="value">Virginia Commonwealth University</td></tr><tr class="item-author-title"><td class="label">Title:</td><td class="value">Assistant Professor</td></tr><tr class="item-email"><td class="label">Email:</td><td class="value">tnichols3@erols.com</td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-abstract">Objectives: The first objective of this study was to examine relationships among demographic, perinatal, work, health and family variables in employed, postpartum mothers. A second objective was to determine which independent variables explain or predict maternal health and family well-being outcomes for women who return to paid employment during the first year postpartum. A majority of American women, who return to work after the birth of new child, do so within two to three months postpartum. Married women in the United States report that they return to the workforce primarily because of economic necessity, as generally two incomes are required to maintain a modest middle class standard of living. The problem, then, is how does postpartum employment affect quality of life for a woman and her family? Design: A nonexperimental, descriptive correlational design was selected. Population, Sample, Setting, Years: The study population included married, employed mothers, living in the United States, with at least one child less than 13 months of age. Subjects were obtained from a convenience sample and included 78 women aged 22-42. Mothers were recruited from primary care offices and day care centers, as well as by word of mouth.The study started in December 2000 and ended in July 2001. Concept or Variables Studied Together: In addition to demographic and perinatal variables (including breast-feeding initiation and duration), work (coping and employment satisfaction), maternal health (psychosocial and physical), and family well-being (marital, parenting and family satisfaction) were the study's variables of interest. Methods: With human subjects approval, women who met study criteria were invited to participate and agreed to do so by signing an informed letter of consent and answering items on the research questionnaire, which were returned to the investigator in a stamped, addressed envelope. The subjects were required to answer forced choice and open-ended questions about demographic, perinatal, work, health and family variables. After the signed consent form and completed questionnaire were received, women were sent monetary compensation. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics, correlations, t-tests, and multiple regression analyses. Preliminary Findings: As hypothesized, higher levels of coping and employment satisfaction were positively correlated with higher levels of maternal health and family well-being. Additionally, older mothers with higher educational levels reported higher levels of flexibility and satisfaction with their work situation, which, in turn, were associated with higher levels of health and family well-being. Other findings indicated that perceived work flexibility, spousal support, and social support from others positively influenced successful navigation of multiple role responsibilities. Unfortunately, return to the workplace and subsequent work requirements had adverse effects on the initiation and duration of breast-feeding. Multiparous women were less likely to initiate breast-feeding with a second child, especially when they were not successful with combining lactation with employment in an earlier experience. Interestingly, first-time mothers appeared to have greater difficulty negotiating work, health, and family issues when compared to veteran mothers. Conclusions: In the long term, a mother's emotional and physical health seems to have a positive influence on work satisfaction and productivity, which will shape her ability to be sensitive to the needs of her family. In turn, family well-being depends on the economic contributions as well as the physical and emotional health of mothers. To optimize quality of life for childbearing families, future research is needed to develop and test interventions designed to help mothers navigate work, health, and family issues. The first step is a thorough understanding of issues faced by employed, postpartum mothers. Preliminary results from this study suggest that, in addition to increased support for all employed postpartum mothers, the needs of first-time mothers may be quite different than than those of veteran mothers. Implications: Specific interventions should be initiated during pregnancy to facilitate a woman's transition during postpartum return to the workplace. Ongoing support for employed mothers should continue through at least the first year postpartum. Based on the preliminary findings of this study, specific emphasis must be placed on interventions to improve breast-feeding rates, coping strategies, social support, work flexibility, and marital and family satisfaction to maximize quality of life for women. The overall goal of future research involving postpartum employed mothers is to foster the successful navigation of work, health, and family well being.<br/><br/></td></tr></table>en_GB
dc.date.available2011-10-26T14:10:53Z-
dc.date.issued2002-07en_GB
dc.date.accessioned2011-10-26T14:10:53Z-
dc.description.sponsorshipSigma Theta Tau Internationalen_GB
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