Factors Influencing the Frequency and Infrequency of Testicular Self-Examination in Adult Males

2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10755/156779
Type:
Presentation
Title:
Factors Influencing the Frequency and Infrequency of Testicular Self-Examination in Adult Males
Abstract:
Factors Influencing the Frequency and Infrequency of Testicular Self-Examination in Adult Males
Conference Sponsor:Sigma Theta Tau International
Conference Year:2002
Conference Date:July, 2002
Author:Wynd, Christine, PhD
P.I. Institution Name:University of Akron
Title:Professor
Objective: The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of testicular self-examination (TSE) in a sample of adult males, and to identify factors distinguishing between males who practice TSE regularly and those who practice TSE infrequently or not at all. Design: A comparative descriptive design guided study methodology. Population, Sample, Setting, Years: The study population consisted of adult males aged 18-64 years, represented by a convenience sample of 494 men. Subjects who were recruited from a large industrial complex in the Midwest completed data collection instruments during several occupational health fairs held between 1999-2001. Concepts or Variables Studied: Frequency of TSE constituted the dependent variable. Independent variables included demographic factors such as age, ethnic background, marital status, and education, while satisfaction and social support factors specifically examined variables of life, job, and interpersonal satisfaction, and support of family and friends. Methods: Adult male subjects were asked to complete a health risk appraisal (HRA) assessing all demographic, satisfaction, and support variables. Subject confidentiality was maintained through anonymity and no identifying marks were required on the HRA. Subjects were then divided into those performing TSE regularly and those performing TSE infrequently or never. Data analysis compared the two groups using Mann Whitney U statistics for discrete variables and t-tests for continuous data. Discriminant function analysis was used to identify factors predicting frequent or infrequent TSE performance. Findings: Sixty-three percent (n=309) of the sample reported rarely or never performing TSE, while 37% (n=185) practiced TSE monthly or every few months. Sixty-four percent of the younger men (between ages 18-35) reported infrequent TSE practice and this is a significant percentage considering the fact that this age group is at greater risk for testicular cancer. Males who infrequently performed TSE were more often African-American or Hispanic in ethnic background and had less than a college education. Other significant factors associated with infrequent TSE practice included less satisfaction with current job assignment; less satisfaction with life in general; greater worries interfering with daily life; more serious family problems in dealing with spouse, children, or parents; and reduced availability of persons to turn to for support. Conclusions: Cultural and socioeconomic variables may be influencing the lack of TSE knowledge and performance in the male population today. Further investigation is required to determine why men, especially minority men, are not performing this important cancer screening activity. Social support is an important factor for enhancing the female practice of breast self-examination and further studies are needed to determine the role of support in promoting improved male TSE practice. Future research should focus on young men at-risk for testicular cancer, determine their knowledge and practice of TSE, and measure the importance of social support as part of an intervention for enhancing the frequency of their TSE performance. Implications: Continued research is needed to understand factors influencing men's practice of TSE, especially social support, and to harness those interventions that will increase the practice. Men who are knowledgeable about the symptoms of testicular cancer and well versed in the techniques of performing TSE will seek medical attention earlier to improve their outcomes for managing and preventing a very curable disease.

Repository Posting Date:
26-Oct-2011
Date of Publication:
Jul-2002
Sponsors:
Sigma Theta Tau International

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.typePresentationen_GB
dc.titleFactors Influencing the Frequency and Infrequency of Testicular Self-Examination in Adult Malesen_GB
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10755/156779-
dc.description.abstract<table><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-title">Factors Influencing the Frequency and Infrequency of Testicular Self-Examination in Adult Males</td></tr><tr class="item-sponsor"><td class="label">Conference Sponsor:</td><td class="value">Sigma Theta Tau International</td></tr><tr class="item-year"><td class="label">Conference Year:</td><td class="value">2002</td></tr><tr class="item-conference-date"><td class="label">Conference Date:</td><td class="value">July, 2002</td></tr><tr class="item-author"><td class="label">Author:</td><td class="value">Wynd, Christine, PhD</td></tr><tr class="item-institute"><td class="label">P.I. Institution Name:</td><td class="value">University of Akron</td></tr><tr class="item-author-title"><td class="label">Title:</td><td class="value">Professor</td></tr><tr class="item-email"><td class="label">Email:</td><td class="value">cwynd@uakron.edu</td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-abstract">Objective: The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of testicular self-examination (TSE) in a sample of adult males, and to identify factors distinguishing between males who practice TSE regularly and those who practice TSE infrequently or not at all. Design: A comparative descriptive design guided study methodology. Population, Sample, Setting, Years: The study population consisted of adult males aged 18-64 years, represented by a convenience sample of 494 men. Subjects who were recruited from a large industrial complex in the Midwest completed data collection instruments during several occupational health fairs held between 1999-2001. Concepts or Variables Studied: Frequency of TSE constituted the dependent variable. Independent variables included demographic factors such as age, ethnic background, marital status, and education, while satisfaction and social support factors specifically examined variables of life, job, and interpersonal satisfaction, and support of family and friends. Methods: Adult male subjects were asked to complete a health risk appraisal (HRA) assessing all demographic, satisfaction, and support variables. Subject confidentiality was maintained through anonymity and no identifying marks were required on the HRA. Subjects were then divided into those performing TSE regularly and those performing TSE infrequently or never. Data analysis compared the two groups using Mann Whitney U statistics for discrete variables and t-tests for continuous data. Discriminant function analysis was used to identify factors predicting frequent or infrequent TSE performance. Findings: Sixty-three percent (n=309) of the sample reported rarely or never performing TSE, while 37% (n=185) practiced TSE monthly or every few months. Sixty-four percent of the younger men (between ages 18-35) reported infrequent TSE practice and this is a significant percentage considering the fact that this age group is at greater risk for testicular cancer. Males who infrequently performed TSE were more often African-American or Hispanic in ethnic background and had less than a college education. Other significant factors associated with infrequent TSE practice included less satisfaction with current job assignment; less satisfaction with life in general; greater worries interfering with daily life; more serious family problems in dealing with spouse, children, or parents; and reduced availability of persons to turn to for support. Conclusions: Cultural and socioeconomic variables may be influencing the lack of TSE knowledge and performance in the male population today. Further investigation is required to determine why men, especially minority men, are not performing this important cancer screening activity. Social support is an important factor for enhancing the female practice of breast self-examination and further studies are needed to determine the role of support in promoting improved male TSE practice. Future research should focus on young men at-risk for testicular cancer, determine their knowledge and practice of TSE, and measure the importance of social support as part of an intervention for enhancing the frequency of their TSE performance. Implications: Continued research is needed to understand factors influencing men's practice of TSE, especially social support, and to harness those interventions that will increase the practice. Men who are knowledgeable about the symptoms of testicular cancer and well versed in the techniques of performing TSE will seek medical attention earlier to improve their outcomes for managing and preventing a very curable disease.<br/><br/></td></tr></table>en_GB
dc.date.available2011-10-26T15:07:45Z-
dc.date.issued2002-07en_GB
dc.date.accessioned2011-10-26T15:07:45Z-
dc.description.sponsorshipSigma Theta Tau Internationalen_GB
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