2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10755/156871
Type:
Presentation
Title:
Are There Two Types of Hope in the Elderly?
Abstract:
Are There Two Types of Hope in the Elderly?
Conference Sponsor:Sigma Theta Tau International
Conference Year:2002
Conference Date:July, 2002
Author:Curl, Eileen, PhD
P.I. Institution Name:Fort Hays State University
Title:Associate Professor
Early qualitative research on hope by Dufault and Martoccio (1985) suggested the existence of two different types or spheres of hope. One type of hope they labeled as generalized hope and the other as particularized hope. Generalized hope is a sense of some future beneficial, but indeterminate development, that gives life meaning and protects against despair. Particularized hope is concerned with an object of hope that may be concrete or abstract. When hope for a particular object no longer seems realistic, generalized hope may be the resource used to help a person cope. In order to promote hope in clients, more knowledge is needed about these two types of hope and their possible origins. According to Erikson (1963), hope is the virtue from favorable residual during the first stage of life. If there are two types of hope are both from the same developmental residual? Answering this question may help nurses understand which hope promoting interventions clients need. Objectives: This research study 1) operationalized the phenomenon of generalized hope and particularized hope, 2) examined generalized hope and particularized hope in community-based elderly, and 3) explored the relationship between psychosocial developmental residual and type of hope. Design: A descriptive, exploratory design was used. Population, Sample, Setting, Years: Ninety subjects were randomly selected from two community-based congregate housing units in a rural, midwestern city of the United States of America. The subjects ages ranged from 63 to 92, and 80% were female. Concepts or Variables Studied Together: The main variables were generalized hope and particularized hope, studied in relation to developmental residual in elderly individuals. Methods: Potential subjects were sent a letter describing the study. A follow-up phone call was made to potential subjects to further explain the study and obtain permission to visit subjects in their apartments. Written consent for inclusion in the study and data were collected during the investigator's visit to each subject's apartment. Demographic data were obtained using an instrument developed by the investigator. Nowotny's Hope Scale (NHS) was reconceptualized to measure the two types of hope. Measurement of generalized hope and particularized hope was accomplished using selected items from the NHS, which were conceptually congruent with the definitions of the respective type of hope. Psychosocial developmental residual was measured using the Modified Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory. Findings: Findings supported the validity and reliability of the two reconceptualized subscales. Linear regression analysis found that favorable residual from the trust-mistrust stage of life significantly predicted generalized hope, while favorable residual from the autonomy-shame stage of life significantly predicted particularized hope. Also, differences were found in types of hope and health problems subjects reported. Subjects with respiratory problems had lower generalized hope scores than those without respiratory problems, t (88)=2.31, p=.02. Subjects reporting depression had lower particularized hope scores than those not reporting being depressed, t (90)=3.49, p=.00. Additionally, clients with arthritis had significantly lower particularized hope scores, t (88)=2.30, p=.02. Conclusions: The findings lend support to the existence of two types of hope in the elderly: generalized and particularized. Also, the findings suggest that the first developmental stage of life is the origin of generalized hope, and the second stage of life is the origin of particularized hope. Implications: Nurse may want to assess both types of hope in clients. Interventions may need to be focused according to the specific type of hope that the client may be having difficulty with due to specific health problems. Further research is needed in this area.

Repository Posting Date:
26-Oct-2011
Date of Publication:
Jul-2002
Sponsors:
Sigma Theta Tau International

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.typePresentationen_GB
dc.titleAre There Two Types of Hope in the Elderly?en_GB
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10755/156871-
dc.description.abstract<table><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-title">Are There Two Types of Hope in the Elderly?</td></tr><tr class="item-sponsor"><td class="label">Conference Sponsor:</td><td class="value">Sigma Theta Tau International</td></tr><tr class="item-year"><td class="label">Conference Year:</td><td class="value">2002</td></tr><tr class="item-conference-date"><td class="label">Conference Date:</td><td class="value">July, 2002</td></tr><tr class="item-author"><td class="label">Author:</td><td class="value">Curl, Eileen, PhD</td></tr><tr class="item-institute"><td class="label">P.I. Institution Name:</td><td class="value">Fort Hays State University</td></tr><tr class="item-author-title"><td class="label">Title:</td><td class="value">Associate Professor</td></tr><tr class="item-email"><td class="label">Email:</td><td class="value">nuec@fhsu.edu</td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-abstract">Early qualitative research on hope by Dufault and Martoccio (1985) suggested the existence of two different types or spheres of hope. One type of hope they labeled as generalized hope and the other as particularized hope. Generalized hope is a sense of some future beneficial, but indeterminate development, that gives life meaning and protects against despair. Particularized hope is concerned with an object of hope that may be concrete or abstract. When hope for a particular object no longer seems realistic, generalized hope may be the resource used to help a person cope. In order to promote hope in clients, more knowledge is needed about these two types of hope and their possible origins. According to Erikson (1963), hope is the virtue from favorable residual during the first stage of life. If there are two types of hope are both from the same developmental residual? Answering this question may help nurses understand which hope promoting interventions clients need. Objectives: This research study 1) operationalized the phenomenon of generalized hope and particularized hope, 2) examined generalized hope and particularized hope in community-based elderly, and 3) explored the relationship between psychosocial developmental residual and type of hope. Design: A descriptive, exploratory design was used. Population, Sample, Setting, Years: Ninety subjects were randomly selected from two community-based congregate housing units in a rural, midwestern city of the United States of America. The subjects ages ranged from 63 to 92, and 80% were female. Concepts or Variables Studied Together: The main variables were generalized hope and particularized hope, studied in relation to developmental residual in elderly individuals. Methods: Potential subjects were sent a letter describing the study. A follow-up phone call was made to potential subjects to further explain the study and obtain permission to visit subjects in their apartments. Written consent for inclusion in the study and data were collected during the investigator's visit to each subject's apartment. Demographic data were obtained using an instrument developed by the investigator. Nowotny's Hope Scale (NHS) was reconceptualized to measure the two types of hope. Measurement of generalized hope and particularized hope was accomplished using selected items from the NHS, which were conceptually congruent with the definitions of the respective type of hope. Psychosocial developmental residual was measured using the Modified Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory. Findings: Findings supported the validity and reliability of the two reconceptualized subscales. Linear regression analysis found that favorable residual from the trust-mistrust stage of life significantly predicted generalized hope, while favorable residual from the autonomy-shame stage of life significantly predicted particularized hope. Also, differences were found in types of hope and health problems subjects reported. Subjects with respiratory problems had lower generalized hope scores than those without respiratory problems, t (88)=2.31, p=.02. Subjects reporting depression had lower particularized hope scores than those not reporting being depressed, t (90)=3.49, p=.00. Additionally, clients with arthritis had significantly lower particularized hope scores, t (88)=2.30, p=.02. Conclusions: The findings lend support to the existence of two types of hope in the elderly: generalized and particularized. Also, the findings suggest that the first developmental stage of life is the origin of generalized hope, and the second stage of life is the origin of particularized hope. Implications: Nurse may want to assess both types of hope in clients. Interventions may need to be focused according to the specific type of hope that the client may be having difficulty with due to specific health problems. Further research is needed in this area.<br/><br/></td></tr></table>en_GB
dc.date.available2011-10-26T15:13:19Z-
dc.date.issued2002-07en_GB
dc.date.accessioned2011-10-26T15:13:19Z-
dc.description.sponsorshipSigma Theta Tau Internationalen_GB
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