2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10755/157230
Type:
Presentation
Title:
Prison Recidivism and Women With Serious Mental Illness: Gender Matters
Abstract:
Prison Recidivism and Women With Serious Mental Illness: Gender Matters
Conference Sponsor:Western Institute of Nursing
Conference Year:2009
Author:Cloyes, Kristin G., PhD, RN
P.I. Institution Name:University of Utah, College of Nursing
Title:Assistant Professor
Contact Address:10 South 2000 East, Salt Lake City, UT, 84112, USA
Contact Telephone:801-557-2808
Co-Authors:Seth Latimer, BS, Graduate Student; Bob Wong, PhD, Assistant Research Professor
Background: Two groups now constitute the fastest growing segment of the US prison population: women and the mentally ill. In 2005, 95,096 women were incarcerated in state prisons, representing a 66% increase over the last decade and roughly 7% of the current population. Seventy three percent of women in prison report experiencing mental disorder, compared with 55% of male prisoners. The vast majority of these women serves time for non-violent, drug related offenses, and most are mothers of young families who will return to their communities within 5 years. Previous program and policy analyses criticize a critical lack of gender-sensitive services and research for women with mental illness. Purpose: Study aims were twofold: 1) To identify and describe the population of people with serious mental illness (SMI) released from Utah State Prison during the five year period 1998-2002 (N = 9,245); 2) To compare recidivism rates, defined as return to prison, for this with rates for persons without SMI released from the prison in the same period. Results were compared by gender, examining how recidivism rates, severity of illness and clinical profiles differed for men and women in the SMI group. Methods: A systematic search of prison records and medical data identified those cases that met study criteria for SMI (N = 2,112, 23% of the population). Detailed chart reviews were completed for each SMI case, collecting retrospective data related to clinical status, mental health treatment and prison resource use. Survival analysis calculated time from prison release and return across all study events (N = 14,621) comparing time for SMI and non-SMI cases while controlling for demographics, degree and type of crime and condition of release. We performed latent class analysis based on indicators of SMI found in chart data, and calculated severity of illness scores using these indicators. We compared the results of survival analysis, latent class analysis and severity of illness scores by gender. Results: 498 women met study criteria for SMI. Therefore, women constitute 23.6% of the SMI sample but only 9% of the Utah State Prison population. Overall, women stayed out of prison longer than men regardless of SMI status. Women with SMI returned to prison 155 days sooner than non-SMI women, while men with SMI returned 129 days sooner than non-SMI men. Yet while men with SMI are at highest risk for reincarceration, the influence of SMI-related factors on survival time was greater for the women in our sample than the men: SMI status demonstrates an asymmetric effect on survival time by gender. Further, women had significantly higher mean illness severity scores than men, t (878) =3.56, p<.001.Women with the highest illness severity score had shorter median survival times than their male counterparts (238 days in community vs. 275). Finally, the majority of women in our sample were assigned to one latent class associated with predominant mood disorder symptoms, few indications of psychotic symptoms, a discontinuous to steady pattern of use, limited mental health related housing, and a confirmed SMI diagnosis. Implications: Women with serious mental illness may be at increased risk of repeated incarceration due to factors specifically related to serious mental illness. Support services that target the needs of such women could have exponential effects, considering the potential breadth of impact on the health of families and communities. Research and interventions that do not account for gender effects may lack the specificity or relevance to meet the unique needs of women with serious mental illness.
Repository Posting Date:
26-Oct-2011
Date of Publication:
17-Oct-2011
Sponsors:
Western Institute of Nursing

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.typePresentationen_GB
dc.titlePrison Recidivism and Women With Serious Mental Illness: Gender Mattersen_GB
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10755/157230-
dc.description.abstract<table><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-title">Prison Recidivism and Women With Serious Mental Illness: Gender Matters</td></tr><tr class="item-sponsor"><td class="label">Conference Sponsor:</td><td class="value">Western Institute of Nursing</td></tr><tr class="item-year"><td class="label">Conference Year:</td><td class="value">2009</td></tr><tr class="item-author"><td class="label">Author:</td><td class="value">Cloyes, Kristin G., PhD, RN</td></tr><tr class="item-institute"><td class="label">P.I. Institution Name:</td><td class="value">University of Utah, College of Nursing</td></tr><tr class="item-author-title"><td class="label">Title:</td><td class="value">Assistant Professor</td></tr><tr class="item-address"><td class="label">Contact Address:</td><td class="value">10 South 2000 East, Salt Lake City, UT, 84112, USA</td></tr><tr class="item-phone"><td class="label">Contact Telephone:</td><td class="value">801-557-2808</td></tr><tr class="item-email"><td class="label">Email:</td><td class="value">kristin.cloyes@nurs.utah.edu</td></tr><tr class="item-co-authors"><td class="label">Co-Authors:</td><td class="value">Seth Latimer, BS, Graduate Student; Bob Wong, PhD, Assistant Research Professor</td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-abstract">Background: Two groups now constitute the fastest growing segment of the US prison population: women and the mentally ill. In 2005, 95,096 women were incarcerated in state prisons, representing a 66% increase over the last decade and roughly 7% of the current population. Seventy three percent of women in prison report experiencing mental disorder, compared with 55% of male prisoners. The vast majority of these women serves time for non-violent, drug related offenses, and most are mothers of young families who will return to their communities within 5 years. Previous program and policy analyses criticize a critical lack of gender-sensitive services and research for women with mental illness. Purpose: Study aims were twofold: 1) To identify and describe the population of people with serious mental illness (SMI) released from Utah State Prison during the five year period 1998-2002 (N = 9,245); 2) To compare recidivism rates, defined as return to prison, for this with rates for persons without SMI released from the prison in the same period. Results were compared by gender, examining how recidivism rates, severity of illness and clinical profiles differed for men and women in the SMI group. Methods: A systematic search of prison records and medical data identified those cases that met study criteria for SMI (N = 2,112, 23% of the population). Detailed chart reviews were completed for each SMI case, collecting retrospective data related to clinical status, mental health treatment and prison resource use. Survival analysis calculated time from prison release and return across all study events (N = 14,621) comparing time for SMI and non-SMI cases while controlling for demographics, degree and type of crime and condition of release. We performed latent class analysis based on indicators of SMI found in chart data, and calculated severity of illness scores using these indicators. We compared the results of survival analysis, latent class analysis and severity of illness scores by gender. Results: 498 women met study criteria for SMI. Therefore, women constitute 23.6% of the SMI sample but only 9% of the Utah State Prison population. Overall, women stayed out of prison longer than men regardless of SMI status. Women with SMI returned to prison 155 days sooner than non-SMI women, while men with SMI returned 129 days sooner than non-SMI men. Yet while men with SMI are at highest risk for reincarceration, the influence of SMI-related factors on survival time was greater for the women in our sample than the men: SMI status demonstrates an asymmetric effect on survival time by gender. Further, women had significantly higher mean illness severity scores than men, t (878) =3.56, p&lt;.001.Women with the highest illness severity score had shorter median survival times than their male counterparts (238 days in community vs. 275). Finally, the majority of women in our sample were assigned to one latent class associated with predominant mood disorder symptoms, few indications of psychotic symptoms, a discontinuous to steady pattern of use, limited mental health related housing, and a confirmed SMI diagnosis. Implications: Women with serious mental illness may be at increased risk of repeated incarceration due to factors specifically related to serious mental illness. Support services that target the needs of such women could have exponential effects, considering the potential breadth of impact on the health of families and communities. Research and interventions that do not account for gender effects may lack the specificity or relevance to meet the unique needs of women with serious mental illness.</td></tr></table>en_GB
dc.date.available2011-10-26T19:41:01Z-
dc.date.issued2011-10-17en_GB
dc.date.accessioned2011-10-26T19:41:01Z-
dc.description.sponsorshipWestern Institute of Nursingen_GB
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