HOW GENDER, ETHNICITY, & ROUTE OF INFECTION IMPACTS DEPRESSION IN HIV POSITIVE ADULTS

2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10755/157268
Type:
Presentation
Title:
HOW GENDER, ETHNICITY, & ROUTE OF INFECTION IMPACTS DEPRESSION IN HIV POSITIVE ADULTS
Abstract:
HOW GENDER, ETHNICITY, & ROUTE OF INFECTION IMPACTS DEPRESSION IN HIV POSITIVE ADULTS
Conference Sponsor:Western Institute of Nursing
Conference Year:2010
Author:Alston, Naomi L., RN
P.I. Institution Name:University of California, San Francisco, School of Nursing
Title:Doctoral Student
Contact Address:2 Koret Way,#N-411Y, UCSF, Box 0606, San Francisco, CA, 94143-0606, USA
Co-Authors:Caryl Gay; Kathyn Lee
BACKGROUND: An estimated 40,000 new HIV infections occur annually in the United States, with the vast majority (99%) occurring through sexual exposure and/or intravenous drug use (IVDU). HIV infection rate disproportionally impacts communities of color, with the rate of HIV infection roughly eight times higher in African Americans than Whites. Women account for 25% of new HIV infections; African American and Latino women comprise 76% of women living with AIDS. In the U.S., depression ranks among the most prevalent psychiatric disorders, sometimes resulting from medical conditions and their treatments. Depression is a common symptom among those with HIV.
PURPOSES/AIMS: The purpose of this study was to determine whether depressive symptoms differ by gender, ethnicity, or route of infection (ROI) in a sample of men and women living with HIV.
METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, secondary analysis of data from a study of symptoms and genetic markers in HIV-infected adults. Race/ethnicity was coded as Black, Hispanic, or White, and ROI was coded as sexual exposure, IVDU, both, or neither. Frequency of depressive symptoms was estimated using the 20-item self-report Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) Scale. ANOVA was used to test the effects of sex, race/ethnicity, and ROI on CES-D scores. RESULTS: The final sample consisted of 229 men and 93 women with complete data, and was ethnically/racially diverse (42% Caucasian, 39% African-American, 19% Other). Most reported acquiring HIV through sexual exposure (62%), 12% through IVDU only, 20% reported both sexual exposure and IVDU, and 6% reported an unknown or other route of infection. Bivariate analyses indicated significant differences in mean depression scores by sex and ROI. Women had a significantly higher mean CES-D score (19.4 +/- 10.7 SD) than men in the sample (16.2 +/- 10.2; F[1,320]= 6.26, p=.013). Those who acquired HIV through sexual exposure or IVDU had higher depression scores than those who reported other routes of infections (F[3,318]=3.11, p=.027). African-American (16.5 +/- 9.9) and Caucasian (16.5 +/- 10.1) adults had slightly lower depression scores than those of mixed or other race (19.9¦11.9), but the results did not reach statistical significance (F[2,319]=2.62, p=.074). However, when sex (male vs. female) and ROI (sexual exposure/IVDU vs. neither) were included in a 2-way ANOVA, acquiring HIV through sexual exposure or IVDU was the only factor significantly related to depressive symptoms (F[1,318]=7.34, p=.007).
IMPLICATIONS: Results suggest greater depressive symptoms in women compared to men and the differences may be associated with ROI. There were no racial differences in CES-D scores, suggesting that those from different ethnic groups report similar levels of depressive symptoms. These findings help to identify HIV-infected adults most at risk for depressive symptoms and support future research on interventions to reduce depressive symptoms in HIV positive adults.
Repository Posting Date:
26-Oct-2011
Date of Publication:
17-Oct-2011
Sponsors:
Western Institute of Nursing

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.typePresentationen_GB
dc.titleHOW GENDER, ETHNICITY, & ROUTE OF INFECTION IMPACTS DEPRESSION IN HIV POSITIVE ADULTSen_GB
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10755/157268-
dc.description.abstract<table><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-title">HOW GENDER, ETHNICITY, &amp; ROUTE OF INFECTION IMPACTS DEPRESSION IN HIV POSITIVE ADULTS</td></tr><tr class="item-sponsor"><td class="label">Conference Sponsor:</td><td class="value">Western Institute of Nursing</td></tr><tr class="item-year"><td class="label">Conference Year:</td><td class="value">2010</td></tr><tr class="item-author"><td class="label">Author:</td><td class="value">Alston, Naomi L., RN</td></tr><tr class="item-institute"><td class="label">P.I. Institution Name:</td><td class="value">University of California, San Francisco, School of Nursing</td></tr><tr class="item-author-title"><td class="label">Title:</td><td class="value">Doctoral Student</td></tr><tr class="item-address"><td class="label">Contact Address:</td><td class="value">2 Koret Way,#N-411Y, UCSF, Box 0606, San Francisco, CA, 94143-0606, USA</td></tr><tr class="item-email"><td class="label">Email:</td><td class="value">naomi.alston@ucsf.edu</td></tr><tr class="item-co-authors"><td class="label">Co-Authors:</td><td class="value">Caryl Gay; Kathyn Lee</td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-abstract">BACKGROUND: An estimated 40,000 new HIV infections occur annually in the United States, with the vast majority (99%) occurring through sexual exposure and/or intravenous drug use (IVDU). HIV infection rate disproportionally impacts communities of color, with the rate of HIV infection roughly eight times higher in African Americans than Whites. Women account for 25% of new HIV infections; African American and Latino women comprise 76% of women living with AIDS. In the U.S., depression ranks among the most prevalent psychiatric disorders, sometimes resulting from medical conditions and their treatments. Depression is a common symptom among those with HIV. <br/>PURPOSES/AIMS: The purpose of this study was to determine whether depressive symptoms differ by gender, ethnicity, or route of infection (ROI) in a sample of men and women living with HIV. <br/>METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, secondary analysis of data from a study of symptoms and genetic markers in HIV-infected adults. Race/ethnicity was coded as Black, Hispanic, or White, and ROI was coded as sexual exposure, IVDU, both, or neither. Frequency of depressive symptoms was estimated using the 20-item self-report Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) Scale. ANOVA was used to test the effects of sex, race/ethnicity, and ROI on CES-D scores. RESULTS: The final sample consisted of 229 men and 93 women with complete data, and was ethnically/racially diverse (42% Caucasian, 39% African-American, 19% Other). Most reported acquiring HIV through sexual exposure (62%), 12% through IVDU only, 20% reported both sexual exposure and IVDU, and 6% reported an unknown or other route of infection. Bivariate analyses indicated significant differences in mean depression scores by sex and ROI. Women had a significantly higher mean CES-D score (19.4 +/- 10.7 SD) than men in the sample (16.2 +/- 10.2; F[1,320]= 6.26, p=.013). Those who acquired HIV through sexual exposure or IVDU had higher depression scores than those who reported other routes of infections (F[3,318]=3.11, p=.027). African-American (16.5 +/- 9.9) and Caucasian (16.5 +/- 10.1) adults had slightly lower depression scores than those of mixed or other race (19.9&brvbar;11.9), but the results did not reach statistical significance (F[2,319]=2.62, p=.074). However, when sex (male vs. female) and ROI (sexual exposure/IVDU vs. neither) were included in a 2-way ANOVA, acquiring HIV through sexual exposure or IVDU was the only factor significantly related to depressive symptoms (F[1,318]=7.34, p=.007).<br/>IMPLICATIONS: Results suggest greater depressive symptoms in women compared to men and the differences may be associated with ROI. There were no racial differences in CES-D scores, suggesting that those from different ethnic groups report similar levels of depressive symptoms. These findings help to identify HIV-infected adults most at risk for depressive symptoms and support future research on interventions to reduce depressive symptoms in HIV positive adults.<br/></td></tr></table>en_GB
dc.date.available2011-10-26T19:43:03Z-
dc.date.issued2011-10-17en_GB
dc.date.accessioned2011-10-26T19:43:03Z-
dc.description.sponsorshipWestern Institute of Nursingen_GB
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