2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10755/157798
Type:
Presentation
Title:
The Truth About Balance in Treatment Conditions and Symptom Occurrence
Abstract:
The Truth About Balance in Treatment Conditions and Symptom Occurrence
Conference Sponsor:Western Institute of Nursing
Conference Year:2009
Author:Matthews, Ellyn E., PhD, RN, AOCN
P.I. Institution Name:University of Colorado Denver, Nursing
Title:Assistant Professor
Contact Address:13120 East 19th Ave, Aurora, CO, 80045, USA
Contact Telephone:303-724-8552
Co-Authors:Paul Cook, Assistant Professor
Rationale/Conceptual Basis/Background: Randomization is central to rigorous scientific trials. If done well, randomization eliminates selection bias, enhances the validity of statistical tests to compare groups, and provides balance of sample size and of participants' baseline characteristics on multiple dimensions. However, there are issues with common randomization procedures that sometimes make group comparisons problematic. Randomization is most often associated with intervention research; it also has application for studies of symptom clusters. In both cases, Urn Randomization (UR) is a sound option to balance groups in small-sample studies, although UR is underutilized in investigations of interest to the nursing discipline. Judicious choice of a randomization method is a function of many factors including sample size, the number and importance of covariates, researchers' capacity to mask allocation, and their knowledge of randomization methods. Purpose/Aims: This presentation will briefly review common randomization techniques and will identify a broad array of options available for clinical trial designs, particularly those with small to moderate sample sizes. UR will be extensively discussed as a novel approach to balancing groups with smaller sample sizes and in investigations where allocation concealment is a concern. A variety of clinical trials testing pharmaceutical treatments and behavioral interventions are actively using baseline UR procedures. The use of baseline UR in studies with multiple centers and allocation based on severity of disease will be discussed. Methods: UR is a relatively easy procedure to implement. In the past, the complexity and cost of implementing the randomization procedure was prohibitive. However, a computer program for UR is now available free of charge. This program allows researchers to randomize study participants to 2 or 3 randomization groups while also balancing those groups on 2 to 20 variables for stratification. UR allows a small-scale clinical trial to be balanced and approach nearly complete randomization. Advantages include decreased susceptibility to selection bias compared with other methods of randomization (e.g., a permuted-block design). This presentation will highlight the practical aspects of UR, an approach that can help investigators to achieve the goals of random assignment while avoiding pitfalls associated with small groups and unequal distribution of important covariates in the study population. Implications: When designing intervention studies, nurse scientists will want to consider the merits and drawbacks of a wide variety of randomization methods. Including UR in an expanded "methods toolbox" for studies with small samples may help to promote balance in treatment conditions and to ensure the concealment of group allocation.
Repository Posting Date:
26-Oct-2011
Date of Publication:
17-Oct-2011
Sponsors:
Western Institute of Nursing

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.typePresentationen_GB
dc.titleThe Truth About Balance in Treatment Conditions and Symptom Occurrenceen_GB
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10755/157798-
dc.description.abstract<table><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-title">The Truth About Balance in Treatment Conditions and Symptom Occurrence</td></tr><tr class="item-sponsor"><td class="label">Conference Sponsor:</td><td class="value">Western Institute of Nursing</td></tr><tr class="item-year"><td class="label">Conference Year:</td><td class="value">2009</td></tr><tr class="item-author"><td class="label">Author:</td><td class="value">Matthews, Ellyn E., PhD, RN, AOCN</td></tr><tr class="item-institute"><td class="label">P.I. Institution Name:</td><td class="value">University of Colorado Denver, Nursing</td></tr><tr class="item-author-title"><td class="label">Title:</td><td class="value">Assistant Professor</td></tr><tr class="item-address"><td class="label">Contact Address:</td><td class="value">13120 East 19th Ave, Aurora, CO, 80045, USA</td></tr><tr class="item-phone"><td class="label">Contact Telephone:</td><td class="value">303-724-8552</td></tr><tr class="item-email"><td class="label">Email:</td><td class="value">ellyn.matthews@ucdenver.edu</td></tr><tr class="item-co-authors"><td class="label">Co-Authors:</td><td class="value">Paul Cook, Assistant Professor</td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-abstract">Rationale/Conceptual Basis/Background: Randomization is central to rigorous scientific trials. If done well, randomization eliminates selection bias, enhances the validity of statistical tests to compare groups, and provides balance of sample size and of participants' baseline characteristics on multiple dimensions. However, there are issues with common randomization procedures that sometimes make group comparisons problematic. Randomization is most often associated with intervention research; it also has application for studies of symptom clusters. In both cases, Urn Randomization (UR) is a sound option to balance groups in small-sample studies, although UR is underutilized in investigations of interest to the nursing discipline. Judicious choice of a randomization method is a function of many factors including sample size, the number and importance of covariates, researchers' capacity to mask allocation, and their knowledge of randomization methods. Purpose/Aims: This presentation will briefly review common randomization techniques and will identify a broad array of options available for clinical trial designs, particularly those with small to moderate sample sizes. UR will be extensively discussed as a novel approach to balancing groups with smaller sample sizes and in investigations where allocation concealment is a concern. A variety of clinical trials testing pharmaceutical treatments and behavioral interventions are actively using baseline UR procedures. The use of baseline UR in studies with multiple centers and allocation based on severity of disease will be discussed. Methods: UR is a relatively easy procedure to implement. In the past, the complexity and cost of implementing the randomization procedure was prohibitive. However, a computer program for UR is now available free of charge. This program allows researchers to randomize study participants to 2 or 3 randomization groups while also balancing those groups on 2 to 20 variables for stratification. UR allows a small-scale clinical trial to be balanced and approach nearly complete randomization. Advantages include decreased susceptibility to selection bias compared with other methods of randomization (e.g., a permuted-block design). This presentation will highlight the practical aspects of UR, an approach that can help investigators to achieve the goals of random assignment while avoiding pitfalls associated with small groups and unequal distribution of important covariates in the study population. Implications: When designing intervention studies, nurse scientists will want to consider the merits and drawbacks of a wide variety of randomization methods. Including UR in an expanded &quot;methods toolbox&quot; for studies with small samples may help to promote balance in treatment conditions and to ensure the concealment of group allocation.</td></tr></table>en_GB
dc.date.available2011-10-26T20:12:53Z-
dc.date.issued2011-10-17en_GB
dc.date.accessioned2011-10-26T20:12:53Z-
dc.description.sponsorshipWestern Institute of Nursingen_GB
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