2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10755/157813
Type:
Presentation
Title:
Constructivist Teaching and the Acquisition of Higher Order Cognition
Abstract:
Constructivist Teaching and the Acquisition of Higher Order Cognition
Conference Sponsor:Western Institute of Nursing
Conference Year:2009
Author:Merrill, Alison, PhD
P.I. Institution Name:University of Northern Colorado, Nursing
Title:Assistant Professor
Contact Address:Gutner Hall Campus Box 125, Greeley, CO, 80634, USA
Contact Telephone:970-351-1389
Co-Authors:Gene Gloeckner, PhD, Professor
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of brain-based constructivist teaching strategies versus a traditional lecture format on the acquisition of higher order cognition and learning. Rationale/Conceptual Basis: Nursing students are expected to master an enormous amount of theoretical knowledge and then immediately apply that knowledge in the care of acutely ill patients.  Nurses must be able to think in a flexible, dynamic manner.  The knowledge and skills cannot be memorized and recalled for each situation.  Rather the nurse must able to analyze each situation, synthesize a plan or action, apply underlying knowledge and experience in performing appropriate interventions, and evaluate the results.  In other words, nurses must utilize higher cognitive levels of thinking in each situation.  Nursing educators are challenged to develop strategies that enhance the acquisition of these higher order processes. The conceptual basis for this study is derived from the fields of neuroscience and cognitive psychology. It is now possible to witness changes in brain structures when individuals are given different learning tasks. Learning is defined as the growth of new dendrites.  Brain-based teaching advocates hold that education should stimulate the growth of new dendrites and, hence, the enrichment of neural connections. Cognitive psychologists view learning as a constructive activity in which new knowledge is built on an internal foundation of existing knowledge through a personal interpretation of experience. Constructivist teaching strategies have evolved to stimulate the brain's natural learning ability as the learner builds and enriches his/her knowledge base.  Utilizing such strategies may enable educators to bridge the gap between neurological and cognitive sciences and classroom teaching and learning. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental quantitative study with a 2x2x2 factorial design with repeated measures on the last factor.  The independent variables were type of student (traditional versus second degree), teaching method (lecture versus brain-based activities), and within group change over time (post-test minus pre-test gain scores).  One dependent variable was a between group comparison of gain scores and the second dependent variable was a within and between groups comparison of course examination scores. A convenience sample of students enrolled in medical-surgical nursing in the spring 2008 semester was used.  One group (n=36) was made up of traditional nursing students and the other group (n=36) consisted of second-degree nursing students. Four separate learning units were included in this study.  Pre-tests and post-tests were given on the first two units (cardiac, respiratory).  Course examinations scores from these units as well as two other units (GI, neurological) were compared.  Only questions rated as higher order cognition were utilized on the examinations. In one cohort two of the units were taught via lecture format and two using constructivist activities (jigsaw, concept mapping, and interactive group work).  These methods were reversed for the other cohort. Results: There was a statistically significant difference based on type of teaching strategy used (t = -2.078, df = 270, p = .039) with higher mean scores on the examinations covering brain-based learning units.  There was no statistical significance based on type of student. Implications: Constructivist designed group-work and interactive projects such as jigsaw activities and concept mapping may enhance the acquisition of higher order cognition.  These should be incorporated throughout the nursing curriculum.
Repository Posting Date:
26-Oct-2011
Date of Publication:
17-Oct-2011
Sponsors:
Western Institute of Nursing

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.typePresentationen_GB
dc.titleConstructivist Teaching and the Acquisition of Higher Order Cognitionen_GB
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10755/157813-
dc.description.abstract<table><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-title">Constructivist Teaching and the Acquisition of Higher Order Cognition</td></tr><tr class="item-sponsor"><td class="label">Conference Sponsor:</td><td class="value">Western Institute of Nursing</td></tr><tr class="item-year"><td class="label">Conference Year:</td><td class="value">2009</td></tr><tr class="item-author"><td class="label">Author:</td><td class="value">Merrill, Alison, PhD</td></tr><tr class="item-institute"><td class="label">P.I. Institution Name:</td><td class="value">University of Northern Colorado, Nursing</td></tr><tr class="item-author-title"><td class="label">Title:</td><td class="value">Assistant Professor</td></tr><tr class="item-address"><td class="label">Contact Address:</td><td class="value">Gutner Hall Campus Box 125, Greeley, CO, 80634, USA</td></tr><tr class="item-phone"><td class="label">Contact Telephone:</td><td class="value">970-351-1389</td></tr><tr class="item-email"><td class="label">Email:</td><td class="value">alison.merrill@unco.edu</td></tr><tr class="item-co-authors"><td class="label">Co-Authors:</td><td class="value">Gene Gloeckner, PhD, Professor</td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-abstract">Purpose:&nbsp;The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of brain-based constructivist teaching strategies versus a traditional lecture format on the acquisition of higher order cognition and learning. Rationale/Conceptual Basis: Nursing students are expected to master an enormous amount of theoretical knowledge and then immediately apply that knowledge in the care of acutely ill patients.&nbsp; Nurses must be able to think in a flexible, dynamic manner.&nbsp; The knowledge and skills cannot be memorized and recalled for each situation.&nbsp; Rather the nurse must able to analyze each situation, synthesize a plan or action, apply underlying knowledge and experience in performing appropriate interventions, and evaluate the results.&nbsp; In other words, nurses must utilize higher cognitive levels of thinking in each situation.&nbsp; Nursing educators are challenged to develop strategies that enhance the acquisition of these higher order processes. The conceptual basis for this study is derived from the fields of neuroscience and cognitive psychology. It is now possible to witness changes in brain structures when individuals are given different learning tasks. Learning is defined as the growth of new dendrites.&nbsp; Brain-based teaching advocates hold that education should stimulate the growth of new dendrites and, hence, the enrichment of neural connections. Cognitive psychologists view learning as a constructive activity in which new knowledge is built on an internal foundation of existing knowledge through a personal interpretation of experience. Constructivist teaching strategies have evolved to stimulate the brain's natural learning ability as the learner builds and enriches his/her knowledge base.&nbsp; Utilizing such strategies may enable educators to bridge the gap between neurological and cognitive sciences and classroom teaching and learning. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental quantitative study with a 2x2x2 factorial design with repeated measures on the last factor.&nbsp; The independent variables were type of student (traditional versus second degree), teaching method (lecture versus brain-based activities), and within group change over time (post-test minus pre-test gain scores).&nbsp; One dependent variable was a between group comparison of gain scores and the second dependent variable was a within and between groups comparison of course examination scores. A convenience sample of students enrolled in medical-surgical nursing in the spring 2008 semester was used.&nbsp; One group (n=36) was made up of traditional nursing students and the other group (n=36) consisted of second-degree nursing students. Four separate learning units were included in this study.&nbsp; Pre-tests and post-tests were given on the first two units (cardiac, respiratory).&nbsp; Course examinations scores from these units as well as two other units (GI, neurological) were compared.&nbsp; Only questions rated as higher order cognition were utilized on the examinations. In one cohort two of the units were taught via lecture format and two using constructivist activities (jigsaw, concept mapping, and interactive group work).&nbsp; These methods were reversed for the other cohort. Results: There was a statistically significant difference based on type of teaching strategy used (t = -2.078, df = 270, p = .039) with higher mean scores on the examinations covering brain-based learning units.&nbsp; There was no statistical significance based on type of student. Implications: Constructivist designed group-work and interactive projects such as jigsaw activities and concept mapping may enhance the acquisition of higher order cognition.&nbsp; These should be incorporated throughout the nursing curriculum.</td></tr></table>en_GB
dc.date.available2011-10-26T20:13:45Z-
dc.date.issued2011-10-17en_GB
dc.date.accessioned2011-10-26T20:13:45Z-
dc.description.sponsorshipWestern Institute of Nursingen_GB
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