2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10755/158116
Type:
Presentation
Title:
Predicting Depression and Grief Post Miscarriage Using the Lazarus Model
Abstract:
Predicting Depression and Grief Post Miscarriage Using the Lazarus Model
Conference Sponsor:Western Institute of Nursing
Conference Year:2004
Author:Swanson, Kristen, RN, PhD, FAAN
P.I. Institution Name:University of Washington
Contact Address:Department of Family and Child Nursing, Seattle, WA, USA
Purpose: To test the capacity of a five-staged path model based on the Lazarus’ Adaptation and Emotions paradigm to explain variations in depressive symptoms and grief related emotions in 112 men and women up to twelve weeks post miscarriage. Background: Symptoms of grief and depression have been documented in women up to two years post miscarriage. Men’s responses tend to be less intense than their mate’s and range from very sad to personally unaffected, albeit concerned about their mate’s well-being. Lazarus claims that events take on meaning based on what is at stake for the individual as well as the availability of resources. Therefore, constructs chosen for this examination include: Stage I, context (gestational age, miscarriages, children, parental age, provider caring at loss, income, prior treatment for depression); Stage II, intervening variables (emotional strength, satisfaction with partner and other support), Stage III, appraisal (personal significance of miscarriage), Stage IV, reappraisal (active and passive coping) and Stage V, emotional response (depressive symptoms or grief related emotions). In a prior investigation[1] a very similar model explained 62.6% of the variance in women’s depressive symptoms at four months and 53.8% at one year post miscarriage. Methods: Four separate (male and female depression and grief) five staged path analysis employing serial stepwise linear regressions were run. Measures included: Swanson’s Impact of Miscarriage, Emotional Strength, and Provider Caring Scales; Brown’s Satisfaction with Mate’s and Other’s Support Scales; an adaptation of Folkman and Lazarus’ Ways of Coping; the CES-D: and Nikcevic’s Miscarriage Grief Inventory. Results: The model explained significant variance in women’s Stage V depression (Adj. R2 = .408; p<.001) and grief (Adj R2 = .588; p<.001); Stage IV passive (Adj. R2 = .314; p<.001) and active (Adj R2 = .058; p<.01) coping; Stage III personal significance (Adj. R2 = .127; p<.001); and Stage II emotional strength (Adj. R2 = .191; p<.001) and satisfaction with mate’s support (Adj. R2 = .064; p<.01). Personal significance, prior treatment for depression, emotional strength, and income had significant direct effects on women’s depression. Passive and active coping, personal significance, and income had significant direct effects on women’s grief. The model explained significant variance in men’s Stage V depression (Adj R2 = .231; p<.001) and grief (Adj R2 = .392; p<.001); Stage IV passive (Adj R2 = .315; p<.001) and active (Adj R2 = .091; p<.001) coping; Stage III personal significance (Adj R2 = .106; p<.001); and Stage II emotional strength (Adj R2 = .260; p<.001). Passive coping and prior treatment for depression had significant direct effects on men’s depression. Only passive coping had a significant direct effect on men’s grief. Implications: The Lazarus model was more effective in explaining grief than depression for both men and women in the first few weeks post loss. There are differences in factors that predict increased depression and grief for women and men post miscarriage differ.
Repository Posting Date:
26-Oct-2011
Date of Publication:
17-Oct-2011
Sponsors:
Western Institute of Nursing

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.typePresentationen_GB
dc.titlePredicting Depression and Grief Post Miscarriage Using the Lazarus Modelen_GB
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10755/158116-
dc.description.abstract<table><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-title">Predicting Depression and Grief Post Miscarriage Using the Lazarus Model</td></tr><tr class="item-sponsor"><td class="label">Conference Sponsor:</td><td class="value">Western Institute of Nursing</td></tr><tr class="item-year"><td class="label">Conference Year:</td><td class="value">2004</td></tr><tr class="item-author"><td class="label">Author:</td><td class="value">Swanson, Kristen, RN, PhD, FAAN</td></tr><tr class="item-institute"><td class="label">P.I. Institution Name:</td><td class="value">University of Washington</td></tr><tr class="item-address"><td class="label">Contact Address:</td><td class="value">Department of Family and Child Nursing, Seattle, WA, USA</td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-abstract">Purpose: To test the capacity of a five-staged path model based on the Lazarus&rsquo; Adaptation and Emotions paradigm to explain variations in depressive symptoms and grief related emotions in 112 men and women up to twelve weeks post miscarriage. Background: Symptoms of grief and depression have been documented in women up to two years post miscarriage. Men&rsquo;s responses tend to be less intense than their mate&rsquo;s and range from very sad to personally unaffected, albeit concerned about their mate&rsquo;s well-being. Lazarus claims that events take on meaning based on what is at stake for the individual as well as the availability of resources. Therefore, constructs chosen for this examination include: Stage I, context (gestational age, miscarriages, children, parental age, provider caring at loss, income, prior treatment for depression); Stage II, intervening variables (emotional strength, satisfaction with partner and other support), Stage III, appraisal (personal significance of miscarriage), Stage IV, reappraisal (active and passive coping) and Stage V, emotional response (depressive symptoms or grief related emotions). In a prior investigation[1] a very similar model explained 62.6% of the variance in women&rsquo;s depressive symptoms at four months and 53.8% at one year post miscarriage. Methods: Four separate (male and female depression and grief) five staged path analysis employing serial stepwise linear regressions were run. Measures included: Swanson&rsquo;s Impact of Miscarriage, Emotional Strength, and Provider Caring Scales; Brown&rsquo;s Satisfaction with Mate&rsquo;s and Other&rsquo;s Support Scales; an adaptation of Folkman and Lazarus&rsquo; Ways of Coping; the CES-D: and Nikcevic&rsquo;s Miscarriage Grief Inventory. Results: The model explained significant variance in women&rsquo;s Stage V depression (Adj. R2 = .408; p&lt;.001) and grief (Adj R2 = .588; p&lt;.001); Stage IV passive (Adj. R2 = .314; p&lt;.001) and active (Adj R2 = .058; p&lt;.01) coping; Stage III personal significance (Adj. R2 = .127; p&lt;.001); and Stage II emotional strength (Adj. R2 = .191; p&lt;.001) and satisfaction with mate&rsquo;s support (Adj. R2 = .064; p&lt;.01). Personal significance, prior treatment for depression, emotional strength, and income had significant direct effects on women&rsquo;s depression. Passive and active coping, personal significance, and income had significant direct effects on women&rsquo;s grief. The model explained significant variance in men&rsquo;s Stage V depression (Adj R2 = .231; p&lt;.001) and grief (Adj R2 = .392; p&lt;.001); Stage IV passive (Adj R2 = .315; p&lt;.001) and active (Adj R2 = .091; p&lt;.001) coping; Stage III personal significance (Adj R2 = .106; p&lt;.001); and Stage II emotional strength (Adj R2 = .260; p&lt;.001). Passive coping and prior treatment for depression had significant direct effects on men&rsquo;s depression. Only passive coping had a significant direct effect on men&rsquo;s grief. Implications: The Lazarus model was more effective in explaining grief than depression for both men and women in the first few weeks post loss. There are differences in factors that predict increased depression and grief for women and men post miscarriage differ. </td></tr></table>en_GB
dc.date.available2011-10-26T20:31:30Z-
dc.date.issued2011-10-17en_GB
dc.date.accessioned2011-10-26T20:31:30Z-
dc.description.sponsorshipWestern Institute of Nursingen_GB
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