Gender Differences in Emotional Factors and Symptom Reporting of Individuals with COPD

2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10755/158118
Type:
Presentation
Title:
Gender Differences in Emotional Factors and Symptom Reporting of Individuals with COPD
Abstract:
Gender Differences in Emotional Factors and Symptom Reporting of Individuals with COPD
Conference Sponsor:Western Institute of Nursing
Conference Year:2004
Author:Torres, Claudia
P.I. Institution Name:University of New Mexico College of Nursing
Contact Address:MSC09 5350, 1 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, 87131, USA
Co-Authors:Meek, Paula
Specific Aims: The purpose of this comparative study was to examine if differences exist on reported symptoms of anxiety, hopelessness and helplessness, irritability and dyspnea between men and women with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Rationale and Background: COPD is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States and worldwide results in significant disability in those affected. Frequently, COPD is thought of as a male disease, but the rate of occurrence for females continues to dramatically rise while there is a decline in the rate for males. There have been several studies comparing males and females with chronic illness. Further, in many of these investigations females are said to report greater symptom intensity and distress as well as greater emotional consequences. However, no study has examined gender differences in the emotional consequences of COPD and dyspnea intensity when age and pulmonary disease severity is controlled for. Methods: This analysis represents a secondary analysis of a large investigation. All subjects completed spirometry, Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE) select subscales of the Bronchitis Emphysema Symptom Checklist (BESC) and daily measures of breathing effort and distress for two weeks using a visual analogue scale (VAS). All questionnaires had reliabilities (a) over .70. The BESC subscales used measured the symptoms of anxiety, irritability, dyspnea, and helplessness on a scale 1 to 5 with greater scores indicating the greater intensity. The 2 week VAS scores were aggregated to obtain a mean and standard deviation (SD) value to represent variability. Independent T-tests were used and the significance level was set a p=0.05. Sample: This study included 56 age (71 ± 8 years old) and pulmonary function matched males and females with COPD who had moderate to sever (FEV1 43 ± 15%) pulmonary impairment. There were no differences between the groups in average number of episodes of dyspnea per day(4 ± 5), percentage currently smoking (9%), percentage hospitalized in the last year (30%), number of individuals in the household (1.8 ± 0.6), or general cognitive function as measured by the MMSE (28 ± 2). Results: No significant differences (t<1.43; p>.05) were found between males and females for the irritability, helplessness, and anxiety subscales of the BESC. However, a significant difference (t+2.05, p=0.05) was found between the groups for the BESC dyspnea subscales, with males having higher scores (18.9 ± 3.6) than women (16.7 ± 4.3). Likewise, the males had a greater average of breathing distress over the two weeks (33.6 ± 21.2) when compared to females (23.2 ± 16.9) that was also statistically significant (t=2.04, p=0.05). No differences were found in the average breathing effort, or variability in breathing distress or effort over the two weeks. Conclusion: The results provide some support for the general premise that a self-report of dyspnea and breathing distress may differ by gender when age and pulmonary function are matched. However, general emotional consequences were not different between groups when other important factors were controlled. Implications: In general it is important to control for age and disease severity when examining gender differences in this population. Further investigation of gender issues in COPD is needed to validate these findings.
Repository Posting Date:
26-Oct-2011
Date of Publication:
17-Oct-2011
Sponsors:
Western Institute of Nursing

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.typePresentationen_GB
dc.titleGender Differences in Emotional Factors and Symptom Reporting of Individuals with COPDen_GB
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10755/158118-
dc.description.abstract<table><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-title">Gender Differences in Emotional Factors and Symptom Reporting of Individuals with COPD</td></tr><tr class="item-sponsor"><td class="label">Conference Sponsor:</td><td class="value">Western Institute of Nursing</td></tr><tr class="item-year"><td class="label">Conference Year:</td><td class="value">2004</td></tr><tr class="item-author"><td class="label">Author:</td><td class="value">Torres, Claudia</td></tr><tr class="item-institute"><td class="label">P.I. Institution Name:</td><td class="value">University of New Mexico College of Nursing </td></tr><tr class="item-address"><td class="label">Contact Address:</td><td class="value">MSC09 5350, 1 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, 87131, USA</td></tr><tr class="item-co-authors"><td class="label">Co-Authors:</td><td class="value">Meek, Paula</td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-abstract">Specific Aims: The purpose of this comparative study was to examine if differences exist on reported symptoms of anxiety, hopelessness and helplessness, irritability and dyspnea between men and women with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Rationale and Background: COPD is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States and worldwide results in significant disability in those affected. Frequently, COPD is thought of as a male disease, but the rate of occurrence for females continues to dramatically rise while there is a decline in the rate for males. There have been several studies comparing males and females with chronic illness. Further, in many of these investigations females are said to report greater symptom intensity and distress as well as greater emotional consequences. However, no study has examined gender differences in the emotional consequences of COPD and dyspnea intensity when age and pulmonary disease severity is controlled for. Methods: This analysis represents a secondary analysis of a large investigation. All subjects completed spirometry, Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE) select subscales of the Bronchitis Emphysema Symptom Checklist (BESC) and daily measures of breathing effort and distress for two weeks using a visual analogue scale (VAS). All questionnaires had reliabilities (a) over .70. The BESC subscales used measured the symptoms of anxiety, irritability, dyspnea, and helplessness on a scale 1 to 5 with greater scores indicating the greater intensity. The 2 week VAS scores were aggregated to obtain a mean and standard deviation (SD) value to represent variability. Independent T-tests were used and the significance level was set a p=0.05. Sample: This study included 56 age (71 &plusmn; 8 years old) and pulmonary function matched males and females with COPD who had moderate to sever (FEV1 43 &plusmn; 15%) pulmonary impairment. There were no differences between the groups in average number of episodes of dyspnea per day(4 &plusmn; 5), percentage currently smoking (9%), percentage hospitalized in the last year (30%), number of individuals in the household (1.8 &plusmn; 0.6), or general cognitive function as measured by the MMSE (28 &plusmn; 2). Results: No significant differences (t&lt;1.43; p&gt;.05) were found between males and females for the irritability, helplessness, and anxiety subscales of the BESC. However, a significant difference (t+2.05, p=0.05) was found between the groups for the BESC dyspnea subscales, with males having higher scores (18.9 &plusmn; 3.6) than women (16.7 &plusmn; 4.3). Likewise, the males had a greater average of breathing distress over the two weeks (33.6 &plusmn; 21.2) when compared to females (23.2 &plusmn; 16.9) that was also statistically significant (t=2.04, p=0.05). No differences were found in the average breathing effort, or variability in breathing distress or effort over the two weeks. Conclusion: The results provide some support for the general premise that a self-report of dyspnea and breathing distress may differ by gender when age and pulmonary function are matched. However, general emotional consequences were not different between groups when other important factors were controlled. Implications: In general it is important to control for age and disease severity when examining gender differences in this population. Further investigation of gender issues in COPD is needed to validate these findings.</td></tr></table>en_GB
dc.date.available2011-10-26T20:31:37Z-
dc.date.issued2011-10-17en_GB
dc.date.accessioned2011-10-26T20:31:37Z-
dc.description.sponsorshipWestern Institute of Nursingen_GB
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