2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10755/158216
Type:
Presentation
Title:
Repeated measures of Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D)
Abstract:
Repeated measures of Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D)
Conference Sponsor:Western Institute of Nursing
Conference Year:2001
Author:Mariella, Anne
P.I. Institution Name:University of Washington
Contact Address:School of Nursing, PO Box 357262, Seattle, WA, 98195-7266, USA
Contact Telephone:206.616.2810
Need: The longitudinal course of depressive disorders has been studied for the most part retrospectively, in clinical samples, and usually for fewer than 3 years. To date, analysis of prospective and intensive repeated CES-D scores (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale) from a large, community-based sample has not been conducted. Conceptual Foundation: The course of major depressive disorder is now recognized to be chronic, where recurrences alternate with remissions or recoveries. Minor depression meets fewer of the required criteria than major depression. Dysthymia requires a course designation of 2 unrelieved years, also of fewer symptoms than major depressive disorder. Precisely how course designation should be handled is still unresolved. Purpose: To examine the course of repeated measures of the CES-D in a community based sample of women before, during and after the transition to menopause. Sample: There were 205 participants with 6 to 10 repeated CES-D scores measured repetitively and continuously enough so that a pattern could be identified. Women provided CES-D scores approximately yearly as part of a health questionnaire. At the time of entry into the study, between 1990-92, all women were between the ages of 35 and 55, had a uterus and at least one ovary, had had a menstrual period within the previous 12 months, were not pregnant or lactating, had at least some high school education, and could read and understand English. The 205 women in the sample were also no more than five years postmenopause by 1997. Methods: The CES-D is a 20-item self-report scale designed to screen for depressive symptoms in community samples. Yearly CES-D scores were graphed for each of the 205 women. A label describing phenomenological course was created for all patterns. Results: Waveform and nonwaveform courses were identified. Waveforms were for the most part around a stable level of CES-D score, although there were groups of falling and groups of rising scores as well. Some groups showed stable variation, some increasing and some decreasing variation of the waveform around either a stable, rising, or falling level. There were also linear and mixed courses of CES-D scores. The plurality of women in this study had stable very low scores, indicating lack of depression. A large minority of women showed significant variability around either a stable, rising, or falling level, even though for many women this level might not be classified as major depressive disorder. Conclusions and Implications: The literature to date has not identified the phenomenon of variability around less-than-major depressive disorder levels. In addition, researchers have not identified the phenomena of increasing or decreasing variability of depressive symptoms over time, whether stable, rising, or falling. The clinical implications for nurses include assessing depressive symptoms at every contact. Further, nurses might provide anticipatory guidance and self-care strategies for women who have a history of any level of depressive symptoms.
Repository Posting Date:
26-Oct-2011
Date of Publication:
17-Oct-2011
Sponsors:
Western Institute of Nursing

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.typePresentationen_GB
dc.titleRepeated measures of Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D)en_GB
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10755/158216-
dc.description.abstract<table><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-title">Repeated measures of Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D)</td></tr><tr class="item-sponsor"><td class="label">Conference Sponsor:</td><td class="value">Western Institute of Nursing</td></tr><tr class="item-year"><td class="label">Conference Year:</td><td class="value">2001</td></tr><tr class="item-author"><td class="label">Author:</td><td class="value">Mariella, Anne</td></tr><tr class="item-institute"><td class="label">P.I. Institution Name:</td><td class="value">University of Washington</td></tr><tr class="item-address"><td class="label">Contact Address:</td><td class="value">School of Nursing, PO Box 357262, Seattle, WA, 98195-7266, USA</td></tr><tr class="item-phone"><td class="label">Contact Telephone:</td><td class="value">206.616.2810</td></tr><tr class="item-email"><td class="label">Email:</td><td class="value">amariell@u.washington.edu</td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-abstract">Need: The longitudinal course of depressive disorders has been studied for the most part retrospectively, in clinical samples, and usually for fewer than 3 years. To date, analysis of prospective and intensive repeated CES-D scores (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale) from a large, community-based sample has not been conducted. Conceptual Foundation: The course of major depressive disorder is now recognized to be chronic, where recurrences alternate with remissions or recoveries. Minor depression meets fewer of the required criteria than major depression. Dysthymia requires a course designation of 2 unrelieved years, also of fewer symptoms than major depressive disorder. Precisely how course designation should be handled is still unresolved. Purpose: To examine the course of repeated measures of the CES-D in a community based sample of women before, during and after the transition to menopause. Sample: There were 205 participants with 6 to 10 repeated CES-D scores measured repetitively and continuously enough so that a pattern could be identified. Women provided CES-D scores approximately yearly as part of a health questionnaire. At the time of entry into the study, between 1990-92, all women were between the ages of 35 and 55, had a uterus and at least one ovary, had had a menstrual period within the previous 12 months, were not pregnant or lactating, had at least some high school education, and could read and understand English. The 205 women in the sample were also no more than five years postmenopause by 1997. Methods: The CES-D is a 20-item self-report scale designed to screen for depressive symptoms in community samples. Yearly CES-D scores were graphed for each of the 205 women. A label describing phenomenological course was created for all patterns. Results: Waveform and nonwaveform courses were identified. Waveforms were for the most part around a stable level of CES-D score, although there were groups of falling and groups of rising scores as well. Some groups showed stable variation, some increasing and some decreasing variation of the waveform around either a stable, rising, or falling level. There were also linear and mixed courses of CES-D scores. The plurality of women in this study had stable very low scores, indicating lack of depression. A large minority of women showed significant variability around either a stable, rising, or falling level, even though for many women this level might not be classified as major depressive disorder. Conclusions and Implications: The literature to date has not identified the phenomenon of variability around less-than-major depressive disorder levels. In addition, researchers have not identified the phenomena of increasing or decreasing variability of depressive symptoms over time, whether stable, rising, or falling. The clinical implications for nurses include assessing depressive symptoms at every contact. Further, nurses might provide anticipatory guidance and self-care strategies for women who have a history of any level of depressive symptoms.</td></tr></table>en_GB
dc.date.available2011-10-26T20:37:33Z-
dc.date.issued2011-10-17en_GB
dc.date.accessioned2011-10-26T20:37:33Z-
dc.description.sponsorshipWestern Institute of Nursingen_GB
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