2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10755/158218
Type:
Presentation
Title:
Stress and stress arousal during the menopausal transition
Abstract:
Stress and stress arousal during the menopausal transition
Conference Sponsor:Western Institute of Nursing
Conference Year:2001
Author:Woods, Nancy
P.I. Institution Name:University of Washington
Contact Address:School of Nursing, PO Box 357260, Seattle, WA, 98195-7260, USA
Contact Telephone:206.543.8732
Background. In popular literature and in medical accounts of menopause the transition to menopause is assumed to be stressful. Hypotheses to account for stress have been grounded in models about symptoms being stressful: the domino hypothesis suggests that hot flashes interfere with sleep, creating stress and precipitating mood symptoms. There has been little attention devoted to other sources of stress for midlife women. Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to describe the experiences that women consider stressful across the menopause transition and to determine their association with cortisol and catecholamine levels. Methods. Participants in the Seattle Midlife Women's Health Study (N=205) provided monthly first morning urine specimens analyzed for cortisol and catecholamines, rated their symptoms and daily stressors in a health diary kept at the time of the urine samples. Daily stress levels were pooled over all occasions for one calendar year (1997). Women were classified into one of three stages of the menopausal transition. Analysis of variance was used to analyze the effect of menopause transition stage on stress ratings (how stressed, parenting stress, relationship stress, and job stress). Results. Perceived stress levels rated daily were significantly lower among women in the late transition stage and postmenopause than among those in early and middle transition. Stress levels related to parenting and relationships with others also followed this pattern. There was no significant effect of menopause transition stage on job stress. All the stress ratings were significantly correlated with one another, but job stress and relationship stress were most highly correlated with the global stress rating (r=.77 and .78 respectively). Norepinephrine levels varied across the groups, with women in early and middle transition having lower norepinephrine levels than women in the postmenopause or using hormone therapy. There were no effects of menopause transition group on cortisol or epinephrine. Norepinephrine, epinephrine, and cortisol were significantly correlated with one another (r=.24 to .45). Norepinephrine was weakly and negatively correlated with relationship, parenting, and job stress (r=-.14 to -.16), but the r was not significant. Of interest is that FSH was negatively and significantly correlated with relationship, parent, and job stress (r=-.19 to -.23) FSH was significantly correlated with norepinephrine (r=.45). When women who were using hormones were excluded from the analyses, the relationships between FSH and stress ratings remained the same, as did the direction of the relationships between norepinephrine and stress ratings. In these analyses, women with higher levels of parent stress had lower levels of cortisol (r=.23). Conclusions. Stress levels declined across menopause transition groups, such that women nearest to menopause had the lowest stress levels. In addition, levels of norepinephrine increased across menopause transition groups as did FSH. Only norepinephrine was related to stress levels, and the relationship was weak and negative. FSH had a similar, but significant relationship to stress levels. These results require further intraindividual analyses to determine whether stress levels among the same woman bear the same relationship to cortisol, catecholamines, and FSH as seen in these analyses of pooled data for one year.
Repository Posting Date:
26-Oct-2011
Date of Publication:
17-Oct-2011
Sponsors:
Western Institute of Nursing

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.typePresentationen_GB
dc.titleStress and stress arousal during the menopausal transitionen_GB
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10755/158218-
dc.description.abstract<table><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-title">Stress and stress arousal during the menopausal transition</td></tr><tr class="item-sponsor"><td class="label">Conference Sponsor:</td><td class="value">Western Institute of Nursing</td></tr><tr class="item-year"><td class="label">Conference Year:</td><td class="value">2001</td></tr><tr class="item-author"><td class="label">Author:</td><td class="value">Woods, Nancy</td></tr><tr class="item-institute"><td class="label">P.I. Institution Name:</td><td class="value">University of Washington</td></tr><tr class="item-address"><td class="label">Contact Address:</td><td class="value">School of Nursing, PO Box 357260, Seattle, WA, 98195-7260, USA</td></tr><tr class="item-phone"><td class="label">Contact Telephone:</td><td class="value">206.543.8732</td></tr><tr class="item-email"><td class="label">Email:</td><td class="value">nfwoods@u.washington.edu</td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-abstract">Background. In popular literature and in medical accounts of menopause the transition to menopause is assumed to be stressful. Hypotheses to account for stress have been grounded in models about symptoms being stressful: the domino hypothesis suggests that hot flashes interfere with sleep, creating stress and precipitating mood symptoms. There has been little attention devoted to other sources of stress for midlife women. Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to describe the experiences that women consider stressful across the menopause transition and to determine their association with cortisol and catecholamine levels. Methods. Participants in the Seattle Midlife Women's Health Study (N=205) provided monthly first morning urine specimens analyzed for cortisol and catecholamines, rated their symptoms and daily stressors in a health diary kept at the time of the urine samples. Daily stress levels were pooled over all occasions for one calendar year (1997). Women were classified into one of three stages of the menopausal transition. Analysis of variance was used to analyze the effect of menopause transition stage on stress ratings (how stressed, parenting stress, relationship stress, and job stress). Results. Perceived stress levels rated daily were significantly lower among women in the late transition stage and postmenopause than among those in early and middle transition. Stress levels related to parenting and relationships with others also followed this pattern. There was no significant effect of menopause transition stage on job stress. All the stress ratings were significantly correlated with one another, but job stress and relationship stress were most highly correlated with the global stress rating (r=.77 and .78 respectively). Norepinephrine levels varied across the groups, with women in early and middle transition having lower norepinephrine levels than women in the postmenopause or using hormone therapy. There were no effects of menopause transition group on cortisol or epinephrine. Norepinephrine, epinephrine, and cortisol were significantly correlated with one another (r=.24 to .45). Norepinephrine was weakly and negatively correlated with relationship, parenting, and job stress (r=-.14 to -.16), but the r was not significant. Of interest is that FSH was negatively and significantly correlated with relationship, parent, and job stress (r=-.19 to -.23) FSH was significantly correlated with norepinephrine (r=.45). When women who were using hormones were excluded from the analyses, the relationships between FSH and stress ratings remained the same, as did the direction of the relationships between norepinephrine and stress ratings. In these analyses, women with higher levels of parent stress had lower levels of cortisol (r=.23). Conclusions. Stress levels declined across menopause transition groups, such that women nearest to menopause had the lowest stress levels. In addition, levels of norepinephrine increased across menopause transition groups as did FSH. Only norepinephrine was related to stress levels, and the relationship was weak and negative. FSH had a similar, but significant relationship to stress levels. These results require further intraindividual analyses to determine whether stress levels among the same woman bear the same relationship to cortisol, catecholamines, and FSH as seen in these analyses of pooled data for one year.</td></tr></table>en_GB
dc.date.available2011-10-26T20:37:40Z-
dc.date.issued2011-10-17en_GB
dc.date.accessioned2011-10-26T20:37:40Z-
dc.description.sponsorshipWestern Institute of Nursingen_GB
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