Cognitive Representation of Breathing Differences: Variation in Lived Experience

2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10755/158237
Type:
Presentation
Title:
Cognitive Representation of Breathing Differences: Variation in Lived Experience
Abstract:
Cognitive Representation of Breathing Differences: Variation in Lived Experience
Conference Sponsor:Western Institute of Nursing
Conference Year:2001
Author:Meek, Paula, PhD
P.I. Institution Name:University of Arizona
Title:Assistant Professor
Contact Address:College of Nursing, 1305 North Martin Street, PO Box 210203, Tucson, AZ, 85721-0203, USA
Contact Telephone:520.626.3233
Specific Aims: This paper presents an analysis of the differences in cognitive representation of breathing between patients who experience breathlessness as a constant daily experience as in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), as an episodic event as in Asthma (ASTHMA), or rarely and only in a controlled setting as with healthy individuals who exercise (HEALTHY). Specifically, what differences exist in cognitive representations of breathing based on lived experiences with pathophysiologic alterations? Rationale and Background: Strong evidence in neurological physiology and cognitive psychology indicate that human memories are organized. Importantly, the organization of information in memory is a reflection of personal and educational experiences. It follows that different experiences may lead to a different organization or representations of the information. Illness representations (Leventhal, et al., 1991; Teel, et al, 1997) are said to be cognitive information structures that are formed based on experience with an illness and the associated symptoms. But, few studies have attempted to examine the representations concerning breathing or breathlessness in individuals with chronic pulmonary disease or compare these representations to those of healthy individuals. Methods: All subjects completed a survey containing 11 common terms and phrases associated with breathing. Responses were entered into pathfinder, a software program designed to assess proximity links to create two-dimensional representations of the breathing information. Pathfinder produces graphic representations, determines common links and correlations between groups, and coherence scores that reflect the term to term relatedness of each group's representations. Sample: The study included 32 HEALTHY individuals who had no history of pulmonary disease and exercised 2-3x week; 72 individuals with COPD who had moderate to severe (< FEV1 65 %) impairment, and 30 individuals with ASTHMA who met the NHLBI criteria for moderate disease. The sample was 54% male, and had a mean age of 65 years (+11.1). Results: The ASTHMA and COPD group breathing representations were highly correlated (r = .86), while the ASTHMA with the HEALTHY group were slightly less (r = .72), and the COPD and HEALTHY the lowest (r = .69). The similarities between the ASTHMA group and both the COPD and HEALTHY groups was seen in 5 and 6 common links respectively out 10 possible, which was significantly greater that what could have occurred by chance (p<.05). Coherence scores were highest among the HEALTHY (.74), with both the ASTHMA (.58) and COPD (.56) groups much less. Conclusion: The ASTHMA group, which is between those with great experience (COPD) and those with rare experience (HEALTHY), showed greater correlations and similarities between the representations. The HEALTHY group with the least variability in breathing demonstrated the greatest degree of coherence with the terms used. The result support the general premise that experience with a symptom contributes to different cognitive representations and that the frequency of those experiences may also help organize cognitive information. These differences need to be examined further to provide cues as to how they may impact an individuals ability to carry out self-management.
Repository Posting Date:
26-Oct-2011
Date of Publication:
17-Oct-2011
Sponsors:
Western Institute of Nursing

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.typePresentationen_GB
dc.titleCognitive Representation of Breathing Differences: Variation in Lived Experienceen_GB
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10755/158237-
dc.description.abstract<table><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-title">Cognitive Representation of Breathing Differences: Variation in Lived Experience</td></tr><tr class="item-sponsor"><td class="label">Conference Sponsor:</td><td class="value">Western Institute of Nursing</td></tr><tr class="item-year"><td class="label">Conference Year:</td><td class="value">2001</td></tr><tr class="item-author"><td class="label">Author:</td><td class="value">Meek, Paula, PhD</td></tr><tr class="item-institute"><td class="label">P.I. Institution Name:</td><td class="value">University of Arizona</td></tr><tr class="item-author-title"><td class="label">Title:</td><td class="value">Assistant Professor</td></tr><tr class="item-address"><td class="label">Contact Address:</td><td class="value">College of Nursing, 1305 North Martin Street, PO Box 210203, Tucson, AZ, 85721-0203, USA</td></tr><tr class="item-phone"><td class="label">Contact Telephone:</td><td class="value">520.626.3233</td></tr><tr class="item-email"><td class="label">Email:</td><td class="value">pmeek@nursing.arizona.edu</td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-abstract">Specific Aims: This paper presents an analysis of the differences in cognitive representation of breathing between patients who experience breathlessness as a constant daily experience as in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), as an episodic event as in Asthma (ASTHMA), or rarely and only in a controlled setting as with healthy individuals who exercise (HEALTHY). Specifically, what differences exist in cognitive representations of breathing based on lived experiences with pathophysiologic alterations? Rationale and Background: Strong evidence in neurological physiology and cognitive psychology indicate that human memories are organized. Importantly, the organization of information in memory is a reflection of personal and educational experiences. It follows that different experiences may lead to a different organization or representations of the information. Illness representations (Leventhal, et al., 1991; Teel, et al, 1997) are said to be cognitive information structures that are formed based on experience with an illness and the associated symptoms. But, few studies have attempted to examine the representations concerning breathing or breathlessness in individuals with chronic pulmonary disease or compare these representations to those of healthy individuals. Methods: All subjects completed a survey containing 11 common terms and phrases associated with breathing. Responses were entered into pathfinder, a software program designed to assess proximity links to create two-dimensional representations of the breathing information. Pathfinder produces graphic representations, determines common links and correlations between groups, and coherence scores that reflect the term to term relatedness of each group's representations. Sample: The study included 32 HEALTHY individuals who had no history of pulmonary disease and exercised 2-3x week; 72 individuals with COPD who had moderate to severe (&lt; FEV1 65 %) impairment, and 30 individuals with ASTHMA who met the NHLBI criteria for moderate disease. The sample was 54% male, and had a mean age of 65 years (+11.1). Results: The ASTHMA and COPD group breathing representations were highly correlated (r = .86), while the ASTHMA with the HEALTHY group were slightly less (r = .72), and the COPD and HEALTHY the lowest (r = .69). The similarities between the ASTHMA group and both the COPD and HEALTHY groups was seen in 5 and 6 common links respectively out 10 possible, which was significantly greater that what could have occurred by chance (p&lt;.05). Coherence scores were highest among the HEALTHY (.74), with both the ASTHMA (.58) and COPD (.56) groups much less. Conclusion: The ASTHMA group, which is between those with great experience (COPD) and those with rare experience (HEALTHY), showed greater correlations and similarities between the representations. The HEALTHY group with the least variability in breathing demonstrated the greatest degree of coherence with the terms used. The result support the general premise that experience with a symptom contributes to different cognitive representations and that the frequency of those experiences may also help organize cognitive information. These differences need to be examined further to provide cues as to how they may impact an individuals ability to carry out self-management.</td></tr></table>en_GB
dc.date.available2011-10-26T20:38:47Z-
dc.date.issued2011-10-17en_GB
dc.date.accessioned2011-10-26T20:38:47Z-
dc.description.sponsorshipWestern Institute of Nursingen_GB
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