2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10755/158253
Type:
Presentation
Title:
Northern Thai school-aged children's pain descriptions: A pilot study
Abstract:
Northern Thai school-aged children's pain descriptions: A pilot study
Conference Sponsor:Western Institute of Nursing
Conference Year:2002
Author:Jansaithong, Jarassri
P.I. Institution Name:University of Washington
Contact Address:School of Nursing, Box 357260, Seattle, WA, 981195-726, USA
Contact Telephone:206.246.9622
Problem Statement: Pain descriptions are viewed as an important component of pain assessment. They can provide clues for diagnosis of pain etiology and may suggest methods of management. When examining the verbal expressions of pain the patient's words and cultural background most be considered. This becomes more important when assessing pain in children. Tools developed with English speaking populations to assess pain are difficult to use in cross-cultural population. Idiomatic expressions of pain are often not easily translated from English to other languages. Pain descriptions among Thai children have, for all intents and purpose, been unexamined. It is critical to develop knowledge of the age-appropriate language use by Thai children as a first step in the development of a pain measuring scales for this population. Objective: The objective of this study was to identify basic pain terms used by school-aged children in northern Thailand, and the meanings of those terms. Method: A descriptive exploratory design was used. Participants were healthy children from an elementary school in northern Thailand. Eleven girls and 10 boys ages seven to 12 years participated in the study. A semi-structure interview was used for data collection. Each child was asked to draw a picture that would show a child having a hard time and to talk about his or her drawing. Additional questions were used to elicit information about each child's pain experiences and language used to communicate pain. Signed consent and assent forms were obtained from parents and children before the interview. Analysis: The data were analyzed using McCain's three steps of content analysis: (1) identify the unit of analysis, (2) identify the main topic in each phrase, and (3) develop categories from similar clusters of ideas. Deductive content analysis was used by modifying the coding system presented in Melzack and Torgerson's work (1971), which classified pain words into three categories: sensory, affective and evaluative. Inductive content analysis revealed two additional categories, pattern and analogy. Drawings were not used for data analysis. Results: The results revealed 43 words and phrases of pain descriptions. These words and phrases were classified into five categories. Three basic pain words: jeb (Thai language accent) (100%), puad (85.71%) and sap (85.71%) were most frequently used by this group of children. Jeb was a more general cover-term and represented a type of pain that was described as sharper or more superficial than puad. The word puad was described as being related to a deep internal ache and pain that was muscle related. The word sap was used to describe a type of sudden pain that was strongly associated with abrasions and wounds that come into contact with water or liquid medicine. Conclusion: This study showed that Thai school-aged children could provide pain descriptions in their own vocabulary. These pain descriptions should be validated with a larger sample before using them to develop a pain scale that can assist the nurse to help Thai children manage their pain.
Repository Posting Date:
26-Oct-2011
Date of Publication:
17-Oct-2011
Sponsors:
Western Institute of Nursing

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.typePresentationen_GB
dc.titleNorthern Thai school-aged children's pain descriptions: A pilot studyen_GB
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10755/158253-
dc.description.abstract<table><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-title">Northern Thai school-aged children's pain descriptions: A pilot study</td></tr><tr class="item-sponsor"><td class="label">Conference Sponsor:</td><td class="value">Western Institute of Nursing</td></tr><tr class="item-year"><td class="label">Conference Year:</td><td class="value">2002</td></tr><tr class="item-author"><td class="label">Author:</td><td class="value">Jansaithong, Jarassri</td></tr><tr class="item-institute"><td class="label">P.I. Institution Name:</td><td class="value">University of Washington</td></tr><tr class="item-address"><td class="label">Contact Address:</td><td class="value">School of Nursing, Box 357260, Seattle, WA, 981195-726, USA</td></tr><tr class="item-phone"><td class="label">Contact Telephone:</td><td class="value">206.246.9622</td></tr><tr class="item-email"><td class="label">Email:</td><td class="value">jjansai@u.washington.edu</td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-abstract">Problem Statement: Pain descriptions are viewed as an important component of pain assessment. They can provide clues for diagnosis of pain etiology and may suggest methods of management. When examining the verbal expressions of pain the patient's words and cultural background most be considered. This becomes more important when assessing pain in children. Tools developed with English speaking populations to assess pain are difficult to use in cross-cultural population. Idiomatic expressions of pain are often not easily translated from English to other languages. Pain descriptions among Thai children have, for all intents and purpose, been unexamined. It is critical to develop knowledge of the age-appropriate language use by Thai children as a first step in the development of a pain measuring scales for this population. Objective: The objective of this study was to identify basic pain terms used by school-aged children in northern Thailand, and the meanings of those terms. Method: A descriptive exploratory design was used. Participants were healthy children from an elementary school in northern Thailand. Eleven girls and 10 boys ages seven to 12 years participated in the study. A semi-structure interview was used for data collection. Each child was asked to draw a picture that would show a child having a hard time and to talk about his or her drawing. Additional questions were used to elicit information about each child's pain experiences and language used to communicate pain. Signed consent and assent forms were obtained from parents and children before the interview. Analysis: The data were analyzed using McCain's three steps of content analysis: (1) identify the unit of analysis, (2) identify the main topic in each phrase, and (3) develop categories from similar clusters of ideas. Deductive content analysis was used by modifying the coding system presented in Melzack and Torgerson's work (1971), which classified pain words into three categories: sensory, affective and evaluative. Inductive content analysis revealed two additional categories, pattern and analogy. Drawings were not used for data analysis. Results: The results revealed 43 words and phrases of pain descriptions. These words and phrases were classified into five categories. Three basic pain words: jeb (Thai language accent) (100%), puad (85.71%) and sap (85.71%) were most frequently used by this group of children. Jeb was a more general cover-term and represented a type of pain that was described as sharper or more superficial than puad. The word puad was described as being related to a deep internal ache and pain that was muscle related. The word sap was used to describe a type of sudden pain that was strongly associated with abrasions and wounds that come into contact with water or liquid medicine. Conclusion: This study showed that Thai school-aged children could provide pain descriptions in their own vocabulary. These pain descriptions should be validated with a larger sample before using them to develop a pain scale that can assist the nurse to help Thai children manage their pain. </td></tr></table>en_GB
dc.date.available2011-10-26T20:39:44Z-
dc.date.issued2011-10-17en_GB
dc.date.accessioned2011-10-26T20:39:44Z-
dc.description.sponsorshipWestern Institute of Nursingen_GB
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