2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10755/162613
Type:
Presentation
Title:
Dog Bites in a Pediatric Emergency Department
Abstract:
Dog Bites in a Pediatric Emergency Department
Conference Sponsor:Emergency Nurses Association
Conference Year:1999
Author:Lisa, , Bernardo
Contact Address:University of Pittsburgh School of Nursing, 415 Victoria Blvd., Pittsburgh, PA, 15261
Co-Authors:Mary Jane Gardner, Joan O'Connor, Nicole Amon
Purpose: Dog bites are a serious problem in the pediatric population that often requires Emergency Department (ED) treatment. Little is known about the characteristics of these children, the biting dogs, and the environment in which the bites occur. Such information would be helpful in designing strategies to prevent dog bites. The research question was: What are the characteristics of the biting dogs, the environment in which the bites occurred, and the ED treatment rendered? The epidemiologic triad of agent/vector, host and environment served as this study's theoretical framework.

Design/Sample/Setting: This retrospective study of ED patient records from January 1 - December 31, 1997, was completed at the ED of the pediatric level one regional resource trauma center in Western Pennsylvania. The study of authors reviewed each ED record by hand for those meeting the inclusion criteria; the bite was caused by a dog and the bite occurred <24 hours prior to the ED visit. There were 41,831 children aged 0-19 years treated in the ED during this time period, of which 204 (5%) were bitten by dogs. All patient records for the dog bites are usable.

Methodology: Patient records were abstracted by the study authors for the following variables: agent/vector (breed number of dogs involved in the biting episode, owner, rabies status); host (patient age, gender); environment (month and time of bite, location where bite occurred, events leading to the bite); and treatment (number and location of bites, treatment, discharge status, bite report filed with the local health department, return ED visits). ED charges were obtained from the hospital-billing department. Inter-rater reliability, calculated at 96%, was achieved by the first author's re-abstracting all 204 charts. Data was entered into a computerized spreadsheet and analyzed using SPSS. Data entry was verified by the first author.

Results: For the 204 reports abstracted, ages ranged from 2 days to 19 years (mean=6.8). Children _5 years of age sustained 49% of the bites. Males accounted for 124 (61%) of the sample. Frequently reported breeds were Pit Bull, German Shepherd and Rotweiller. Single dogs (n-202, 99%) caused the bite. The dog's owner was often the parent (n-55, 27%) or neighbor (N-57, 28%). Canine rabies status was not documented (n-70, 34%). The bites frequently occurred in the summer (n-81, 40%) and afternoon (n=61, 54%). The patients were often bitten at home (n=25, 43%). Events leading to the bite indicated that the bite was often provoked. 511 injuries were sustained (mean=2.5/patient), most of which were lacerations (n=292, 57%) and were to the face (n=221, 43%). Treatment included wound repair and antibiotic administration. Rabies prophylaxis was administered to 2 patients. 95% of the patients were discharged to home; there were no fatalities. Mandated health department reporting was documented in 6 (3%) records. Only 11 (5%) patients returned for subsequent ED visits. Costs were calculated at $136,346.94.

Conclusions: Dog bites constituted <1% of the 1997 visits for this pediatric ED. Few bites were serious and most patients were discharged. The lack of specificity in documented bite-related data and health department reporting indicates a need for ED staff education. Emergency staff should comply with mandated reporting requirements and should carefully obtain agent/vector, host and environment information on children sustaining dog bites. The accuracy of such collected data could serve as a foundation for creating effective bite prevention programs. Nurses should educate families on the need for proper supervision of and interactions with young children and the family dog. [Research Poster Presentation]
Repository Posting Date:
27-Oct-2011
Date of Publication:
17-Oct-2011
Sponsors:
Emergency Nurses Association

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.typePresentationen_GB
dc.titleDog Bites in a Pediatric Emergency Departmenten_GB
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10755/162613-
dc.description.abstract<table><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-title">Dog Bites in a Pediatric Emergency Department</td></tr><tr class="item-sponsor"><td class="label">Conference Sponsor:</td><td class="value">Emergency Nurses Association</td></tr><tr class="item-year"><td class="label">Conference Year:</td><td class="value">1999</td></tr><tr class="item-author"><td class="label">Author:</td><td class="value">Lisa, , Bernardo</td></tr><tr class="item-address"><td class="label">Contact Address:</td><td class="value">University of Pittsburgh School of Nursing, 415 Victoria Blvd., Pittsburgh, PA, 15261</td></tr><tr class="item-co-authors"><td class="label">Co-Authors:</td><td class="value">Mary Jane Gardner, Joan O'Connor, Nicole Amon</td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-abstract">Purpose: Dog bites are a serious problem in the pediatric population that often requires Emergency Department (ED) treatment. Little is known about the characteristics of these children, the biting dogs, and the environment in which the bites occur. Such information would be helpful in designing strategies to prevent dog bites. The research question was: What are the characteristics of the biting dogs, the environment in which the bites occurred, and the ED treatment rendered? The epidemiologic triad of agent/vector, host and environment served as this study's theoretical framework.<br/><br/>Design/Sample/Setting: This retrospective study of ED patient records from January 1 - December 31, 1997, was completed at the ED of the pediatric level one regional resource trauma center in Western Pennsylvania. The study of authors reviewed each ED record by hand for those meeting the inclusion criteria; the bite was caused by a dog and the bite occurred &lt;24 hours prior to the ED visit. There were 41,831 children aged 0-19 years treated in the ED during this time period, of which 204 (5%) were bitten by dogs. All patient records for the dog bites are usable.<br/><br/>Methodology: Patient records were abstracted by the study authors for the following variables: agent/vector (breed number of dogs involved in the biting episode, owner, rabies status); host (patient age, gender); environment (month and time of bite, location where bite occurred, events leading to the bite); and treatment (number and location of bites, treatment, discharge status, bite report filed with the local health department, return ED visits). ED charges were obtained from the hospital-billing department. Inter-rater reliability, calculated at 96%, was achieved by the first author's re-abstracting all 204 charts. Data was entered into a computerized spreadsheet and analyzed using SPSS. Data entry was verified by the first author.<br/><br/>Results: For the 204 reports abstracted, ages ranged from 2 days to 19 years (mean=6.8). Children _5 years of age sustained 49% of the bites. Males accounted for 124 (61%) of the sample. Frequently reported breeds were Pit Bull, German Shepherd and Rotweiller. Single dogs (n-202, 99%) caused the bite. The dog's owner was often the parent (n-55, 27%) or neighbor (N-57, 28%). Canine rabies status was not documented (n-70, 34%). The bites frequently occurred in the summer (n-81, 40%) and afternoon (n=61, 54%). The patients were often bitten at home (n=25, 43%). Events leading to the bite indicated that the bite was often provoked. 511 injuries were sustained (mean=2.5/patient), most of which were lacerations (n=292, 57%) and were to the face (n=221, 43%). Treatment included wound repair and antibiotic administration. Rabies prophylaxis was administered to 2 patients. 95% of the patients were discharged to home; there were no fatalities. Mandated health department reporting was documented in 6 (3%) records. Only 11 (5%) patients returned for subsequent ED visits. Costs were calculated at $136,346.94.<br/><br/>Conclusions: Dog bites constituted &lt;1% of the 1997 visits for this pediatric ED. Few bites were serious and most patients were discharged. The lack of specificity in documented bite-related data and health department reporting indicates a need for ED staff education. Emergency staff should comply with mandated reporting requirements and should carefully obtain agent/vector, host and environment information on children sustaining dog bites. The accuracy of such collected data could serve as a foundation for creating effective bite prevention programs. Nurses should educate families on the need for proper supervision of and interactions with young children and the family dog. [Research Poster Presentation]</td></tr></table>en_GB
dc.date.available2011-10-27T10:31:08Z-
dc.date.issued2011-10-17en_GB
dc.date.accessioned2011-10-27T10:31:08Z-
dc.description.sponsorshipEmergency Nurses Associationen_GB
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