2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10755/162910
Type:
Presentation
Title:
Cyanide Awareness and Risk Preparedness among US Emergency Providers
Abstract:
Cyanide Awareness and Risk Preparedness among US Emergency Providers
Conference Sponsor:Emergency Nurses Association
Conference Year:2006
Author:Koschel, Mary Jo, RN, MSN, NREMT-P
P.I. Institution Name:Poudre Valley Health System
Title:Trauma Case Manager/Flight Nurse
Contact Address:1024 Lemay Ave., Fort Collins, CO, 80524, USA
Contact Telephone:(970) 495-8046
Purpose: Cyanide poisoning can occur under heterogeneous circumstances including occupational exposure, industrial accidents, natural catastrophes, suicide and murder attempts, chemical warfare, and terrorism. Cyanide exposure from combustion of nitrile plastics and other nitrogen sources is a common but sometimes overlooked hazard in firefighting. Providers of emergency health care play a pivotal role in recognizing cyanide poisoning and in implementing intervention. The purpose of this study was to assess cyanide risk awareness and preparedness as a function of actual estimated risk of cyanide poisoning among first-responder emergency health care providers in the United States. Design/Setting/Sample: The study used a prospective, cross-sectional, quantitative design to survey a nationally representative sample (n=832) of advanced life support (ALS) emergency providers working with fire departments. Methodology: A questionnaire was administered via the Internet, mail, and telephone. Responses were summarized for the sample and by cyanide risk area (high, medium, low). This calculated variable reflected the risk of cyanide poisoning in the respondent's county compared with other US counties based on factors including fire-smoke injury rate, counts of facilities that use or potentially use cyanide or cyanogenic compounds, and the amount of cyanide or cyanogenic compounds at Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) facilities. Results: The response rate among eligible surveys was 54% (n=507). Cyanide Awareness- the majority of the sample correctly identified fire smoke, chemical transport, and industrial use as potential cyanide sources. However, fewer than 1 in 3 indicated that cyanide exposure from these sources was likely or very likely in their service area even if they were in a high-risk area. Fire smoke was correctly identified as a source of cyanide by 82% of respondents, but only 35% of the same respondents indicated that cyanide exposure from fire smoke was likely or very likely in their service area. Cyanide Preparedness- the number of antidotes available for emergency use was insufficient for any mass-casualty situation. The mean number of Cyanide Antidote Kits immediately available for prehospital use per 100,000 people was 25.7. In addition, only 14% of the sample indicated that the standard protocol is to administer an antidote for suspected cyanide exposure, and only 21% reported stocking a cyanide antidote kit in the ALS vehicle. Conclusions: These data support the premise that smoke inhalation-associated cyanide poisoning may be underrecognized and undertreated and highlight the need for improved education. The results emphasize the need for improved risk assessment and preparedness for cyanide poisoning across the United States including the implementation of emergency protocols that encourage the empiric treatment of suspected cyanide poisoning and appropriate stocking of antidotes. Emergency nurses should include potential cyanide exposure in the nursing assessment of fire-smoke victims, be aware of protocols and treatment options for cyanide poisoning, and be prepared to treat cyanide poisoning empirically. [Research Presentation]
Repository Posting Date:
27-Oct-2011
Date of Publication:
17-Oct-2011
Sponsors:
Emergency Nurses Association

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.typePresentationen_GB
dc.titleCyanide Awareness and Risk Preparedness among US Emergency Providersen_GB
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10755/162910-
dc.description.abstract<table><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-title">Cyanide Awareness and Risk Preparedness among US Emergency Providers</td></tr><tr class="item-sponsor"><td class="label">Conference Sponsor:</td><td class="value">Emergency Nurses Association</td></tr><tr class="item-year"><td class="label">Conference Year:</td><td class="value">2006</td></tr><tr class="item-author"><td class="label">Author:</td><td class="value">Koschel, Mary Jo, RN, MSN, NREMT-P</td></tr><tr class="item-institute"><td class="label">P.I. Institution Name:</td><td class="value">Poudre Valley Health System</td></tr><tr class="item-author-title"><td class="label">Title:</td><td class="value">Trauma Case Manager/Flight Nurse</td></tr><tr class="item-address"><td class="label">Contact Address:</td><td class="value">1024 Lemay Ave., Fort Collins, CO, 80524, USA</td></tr><tr class="item-phone"><td class="label">Contact Telephone:</td><td class="value">(970) 495-8046</td></tr><tr class="item-email"><td class="label">Email:</td><td class="value">writemed@mindspring.com</td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="item-abstract">Purpose: Cyanide poisoning can occur under heterogeneous circumstances including occupational exposure, industrial accidents, natural catastrophes, suicide and murder attempts, chemical warfare, and terrorism. Cyanide exposure from combustion of nitrile plastics and other nitrogen sources is a common but sometimes overlooked hazard in firefighting. Providers of emergency health care play a pivotal role in recognizing cyanide poisoning and in implementing intervention. The purpose of this study was to assess cyanide risk awareness and preparedness as a function of actual estimated risk of cyanide poisoning among first-responder emergency health care providers in the United States. Design/Setting/Sample: The study used a prospective, cross-sectional, quantitative design to survey a nationally representative sample (n=832) of advanced life support (ALS) emergency providers working with fire departments. Methodology: A questionnaire was administered via the Internet, mail, and telephone. Responses were summarized for the sample and by cyanide risk area (high, medium, low). This calculated variable reflected the risk of cyanide poisoning in the respondent's county compared with other US counties based on factors including fire-smoke injury rate, counts of facilities that use or potentially use cyanide or cyanogenic compounds, and the amount of cyanide or cyanogenic compounds at Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) facilities. Results: The response rate among eligible surveys was 54% (n=507). Cyanide Awareness- the majority of the sample correctly identified fire smoke, chemical transport, and industrial use as potential cyanide sources. However, fewer than 1 in 3 indicated that cyanide exposure from these sources was likely or very likely in their service area even if they were in a high-risk area. Fire smoke was correctly identified as a source of cyanide by 82% of respondents, but only 35% of the same respondents indicated that cyanide exposure from fire smoke was likely or very likely in their service area. Cyanide Preparedness- the number of antidotes available for emergency use was insufficient for any mass-casualty situation. The mean number of Cyanide Antidote Kits immediately available for prehospital use per 100,000 people was 25.7. In addition, only 14% of the sample indicated that the standard protocol is to administer an antidote for suspected cyanide exposure, and only 21% reported stocking a cyanide antidote kit in the ALS vehicle. Conclusions: These data support the premise that smoke inhalation-associated cyanide poisoning may be underrecognized and undertreated and highlight the need for improved education. The results emphasize the need for improved risk assessment and preparedness for cyanide poisoning across the United States including the implementation of emergency protocols that encourage the empiric treatment of suspected cyanide poisoning and appropriate stocking of antidotes. Emergency nurses should include potential cyanide exposure in the nursing assessment of fire-smoke victims, be aware of protocols and treatment options for cyanide poisoning, and be prepared to treat cyanide poisoning empirically. [Research Presentation]</td></tr></table>en_GB
dc.date.available2011-10-27T10:36:15Z-
dc.date.issued2011-10-17en_GB
dc.date.accessioned2011-10-27T10:36:15Z-
dc.description.sponsorshipEmergency Nurses Associationen_GB
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