2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10755/163825
Category:
Abstract
Type:
Presentation
Title:
Critical theory applied - Women and primary care interactions
Author(s):
Alexander, Ivy
Author Details:
Ivy Alexander, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA, email: ivy.alexanderr@yale.edu
Abstract:
Purpose: To describe the process of critical theory participatory action research as a method for listening to and learning from women as they analyzed interactions with primary care nurse practitioners. Research question(s) or specific aim(s): What are the characteristics of a primary care interaction with a nurse practitioner as defined by women? What emancipatory interests surface when women examine their interactions with a nurse practitioner? Framework: Critical theory and feminism provided the framework for this participatory action research study. This perspective offers a foundation for developing group research in which participants, including the investigator, are each viewed as equal partners in the process. Participants are researchers who direct and own the process because true change cannot be achieved for those needing change but must instead be forged with them. Critical theory identifies the need for participatory action research in which individuals identify their own circumstances, analyze these circumstances, and self-describe and implement any needed changes to alter the situation. Combining feminism and critical theory perspectives created an opportunity for women participants to identify and analyze characteristics of primary care interactions, identify problems in these interactions, and suggest changes they believed were needed to alter the situation. Methods: Eight ethnically diverse women participated in five successive group meetings to discuss primary care interactions with nurse practitioners. The process of critical theory through participatory action research includes 3 major phases: problematization, conscientization, and praxis. Praxis occurred throughout the project as participants recognized the problems of their situation, tested previously untested possible solutions to the problems, and identified emancipatory actions to effect change. Data including field notes, participant interaction notations, seating charts, audio taped recordings, and audio tape transcripts were reviewed repeatedly to identify significant statements. Significant statements were grouped into common categories to identify essential themes. Participants verified results. Results and Conclusions: Early in the process, participants analyzed primary care interactions they had experienced and identified individual characteristics that comprised an interaction. These characteristics included access to the clinic, the process of making an appointment, comfort of the clinic and waiting rooms, and interactions with clinicians and staff. Problems with interactions were identified (problematization/conscientization). The overarching problem was a lack of caring; a ubiquitous attitude demonstrated when clinicians did not listen, were not trustworthy, failed to show concern, or treated the woman with prejudice or disrespect. Participants discussed and tested-out several ways that they might alter these circumstances (testing untested feasibilities). The women wanted to learn how to stand-up for themselves during interactions. They believed they could accomplish this by developing a positive self-esteem. Ultimately, they determined the right way to "talk-back" to clinicians and thus regain control over interactions and their own health (emancipatory actions). Implications for nursing practice and knowledge development in nursing: Critical theory and feminism can provide a useful research framework in which participants themselves identify problems and solutions. These women strongly valued caring clinicians. Caring, for these women, is demonstrated when they are treated with some degree of equality and with respect for their knowledge and individual life experiences.
Repository Posting Date:
27-Oct-2011
Date of Publication:
27-Oct-2011
Conference Date:
2002
Conference Name:
14th Annual Scientific Sessions
Conference Host:
Eastern Nursing Research Society
Conference Location:
University Park, Pennsylvania, USA
Note:
This is an abstract-only submission. If the author has submitted a full-text item based on this abstract, you may find it by browsing the Virginia Henderson Global Nursing e-Repository by author. If author contact information is available in this abstract, please feel free to contact him or her with your queries regarding this submission. Alternatively, please contact the conference host, journal, or publisher (according to the circumstance) for further details regarding this item. If a citation is listed in this record, the item has been published and is available via open-access avenues or a journal/database subscription. Contact your library for assistance in obtaining the as-published article.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.type.categoryAbstracten_US
dc.typePresentationen_GB
dc.titleCritical theory applied - Women and primary care interactionsen_GB
dc.contributor.authorAlexander, Ivyen_US
dc.author.detailsIvy Alexander, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA, email: ivy.alexanderr@yale.eduen_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10755/163825-
dc.description.abstractPurpose: To describe the process of critical theory participatory action research as a method for listening to and learning from women as they analyzed interactions with primary care nurse practitioners. Research question(s) or specific aim(s): What are the characteristics of a primary care interaction with a nurse practitioner as defined by women? What emancipatory interests surface when women examine their interactions with a nurse practitioner? Framework: Critical theory and feminism provided the framework for this participatory action research study. This perspective offers a foundation for developing group research in which participants, including the investigator, are each viewed as equal partners in the process. Participants are researchers who direct and own the process because true change cannot be achieved for those needing change but must instead be forged with them. Critical theory identifies the need for participatory action research in which individuals identify their own circumstances, analyze these circumstances, and self-describe and implement any needed changes to alter the situation. Combining feminism and critical theory perspectives created an opportunity for women participants to identify and analyze characteristics of primary care interactions, identify problems in these interactions, and suggest changes they believed were needed to alter the situation. Methods: Eight ethnically diverse women participated in five successive group meetings to discuss primary care interactions with nurse practitioners. The process of critical theory through participatory action research includes 3 major phases: problematization, conscientization, and praxis. Praxis occurred throughout the project as participants recognized the problems of their situation, tested previously untested possible solutions to the problems, and identified emancipatory actions to effect change. Data including field notes, participant interaction notations, seating charts, audio taped recordings, and audio tape transcripts were reviewed repeatedly to identify significant statements. Significant statements were grouped into common categories to identify essential themes. Participants verified results. Results and Conclusions: Early in the process, participants analyzed primary care interactions they had experienced and identified individual characteristics that comprised an interaction. These characteristics included access to the clinic, the process of making an appointment, comfort of the clinic and waiting rooms, and interactions with clinicians and staff. Problems with interactions were identified (problematization/conscientization). The overarching problem was a lack of caring; a ubiquitous attitude demonstrated when clinicians did not listen, were not trustworthy, failed to show concern, or treated the woman with prejudice or disrespect. Participants discussed and tested-out several ways that they might alter these circumstances (testing untested feasibilities). The women wanted to learn how to stand-up for themselves during interactions. They believed they could accomplish this by developing a positive self-esteem. Ultimately, they determined the right way to "talk-back" to clinicians and thus regain control over interactions and their own health (emancipatory actions). Implications for nursing practice and knowledge development in nursing: Critical theory and feminism can provide a useful research framework in which participants themselves identify problems and solutions. These women strongly valued caring clinicians. Caring, for these women, is demonstrated when they are treated with some degree of equality and with respect for their knowledge and individual life experiences.</td></tr></table>en_GB
dc.date.available2011-10-27T11:14:30Z-
dc.date.issued2011-10-27en_GB
dc.date.accessioned2011-10-27T11:14:30Z-
dc.conference.date2002en_US
dc.conference.name14th Annual Scientific Sessionsen_US
dc.conference.hostEastern Nursing Research Societyen_US
dc.conference.locationUniversity Park, Pennsylvania, USAen_US
dc.description.noteThis is an abstract-only submission. If the author has submitted a full-text item based on this abstract, you may find it by browsing the Virginia Henderson Global Nursing e-Repository by author. If author contact information is available in this abstract, please feel free to contact him or her with your queries regarding this submission. Alternatively, please contact the conference host, journal, or publisher (according to the circumstance) for further details regarding this item. If a citation is listed in this record, the item has been published and is available via open-access avenues or a journal/database subscription. Contact your library for assistance in obtaining the as-published article.-
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