2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10755/163861
Category:
Abstract
Type:
Presentation
Title:
Water Fitness to Reduce Weight and Improve Blood Glucose
Author(s):
Gilcreast, Darlene M.; Dunn, Mary Z.; Steinberg, John S.
Author Details:
Darlene M. Gilcreast, RN, PhD, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, USA, email: nacnsorg@nacns.org; Mary Z. Dunn, RN, PhD; John S. Steinberg, DPM
Abstract:
Problem and Significance: Obesity and Type 2 diabetes have reached epidemic proportions in the U.S. Long-term complications of diabetes are costly in human suffering and healthcare costs. If subjects' mean blood glucose (A1c) can be lowered by 1%, risk of stroke and heart attack can be reduced by 40% and may reduce long-term costs of diabetes care. Purpose: The purpose is to test effects of water aerobics, moderately vigorous calisthenics performed in "nipple-deep" water, on outcomes in overweight Hispanics and African Americans 40-65 years of age with Type 2 diabetes. The overarching goal is to reduce insulin resistance, thereby improving glucose utilization, lowering blood glucose, and improving blood flow. Research Questions: Overweight subjects who participate in water aerobics three times per week for 12 weeks will lose 10% of their body weight and lower A1c by 10%. Their peripheral circulation, moods, and abilities to perform activities of daily living will improve. Method: A one-group pre/post-test pilot study was used. Dependent variables are: weight, hemoglobin A1c (A1c), finger-stick blood glucose (pre and post exercise), lipid profile, body tape measurements, transcutaneous oxygen (TCpO2)/carbon dioxide (TCpCO2), scores on the Profile of Mood States, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and four YMCA fitness tests. The independent variable is: group water aerobics, 3 times per week for twelve weeks. The sample is 17 Hispanics and 17 African Americans, males and females 40-65 years of age, which is representative of most people with Type 2 diabetes. Findings: Data are only available for 11 subjects. Another 9 subjects are enrolled and nearing completion. Mean weight loss was 2.27 lbs. (1% of initial mean weight, 217 lbs), women, -1.8 lbs.; men, -4.25 lbs. (Range -12.0 to +5). Initial A1c levels were 6.1% to 12.5% (target <7%). Overall, A1c was lowered by a mean -0.4% (-1.9 to +0.4). Mean inches lost were: 1. neck = -0.5 inches (-1.5 to +.5), 2. waist = -1.85 inches (-6 to 0), 3. hips = -1.35 inches (-2.25 to +1), 4. thighs = +0.2 inches (-2 to +4). Mean TCpO2 decreased by 2mmHg (-17 to +16). Mean TCpCO2 increased by 1.25mmHg (-11 to +15). Mean daily change in blood glucose was -70 mg/dl/session (Range +22 to -111). All subjects reported that the exercise sessions were valuable and enjoyable. Many continue to exercise following the end of the study participation. The changes observed have not been subjected to statistics because of the small number of results; however, it can be observed that pre and post-measurement changes would not be significant because they are small thus far. Discussion: Preliminary conclusions are that water aerobics is an effective and pleasurable way to exercise regularly and reduce A1c. A decrease of 1% of A1c has been shown by the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study to reduce risk of stroke and heart attack by 40%. Thus small changes in A1c are clinically significant. More data are needed to assess the effect of water aerobics on weight loss. It was found that glucose response to exercise is individualized. Some subjects gained weight after they had better glucose control because calories previously lost in the urine were being stored as fat due to lower blood sugar and increased insulin sensitivity. Implications for Nursing: Diabetes is a chronic disease that is difficult to control for patients and healthcare providers. It requires a large amount of financial and emotional resources to combat the long-term complications of elevated blood glucose levels: blindness, stroke, heart attack, kidney failure, peripheral vascular disease, peripheral neuropathy, and lower extremity amputation. Nurses must work with patients and the interdisciplinary diabetes team to obtain improved outcomes.
Repository Posting Date:
27-Oct-2011
Date of Publication:
27-Oct-2011
Conference Date:
2004
Conference Name:
2004 NACNS Conference, Renaissance in CNS Practice: Transforming Nursing in the 21st Century
Conference Host:
NACNS - National Association of Clinical Nurse Specialists
Conference Location:
San Antonio, Texas, USA
Description:
Conference theme: Renaissance in CNS Practice: Transforming Nursing in the 21st Century, held on March 11 to 13, 2004 in San Antonio, Texas, USA
Note:
This is an abstract-only submission. If the author has submitted a full-text item based on this abstract, you may find it by browsing the Virginia Henderson Global Nursing e-Repository by author. If author contact information is available in this abstract, please feel free to contact him or her with your queries regarding this submission. Alternatively, please contact the conference host, journal, or publisher (according to the circumstance) for further details regarding this item. If a citation is listed in this record, the item has been published and is available via open-access avenues or a journal/database subscription. Contact your library for assistance in obtaining the as-published article.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.type.categoryAbstracten_US
dc.typePresentationen_GB
dc.titleWater Fitness to Reduce Weight and Improve Blood Glucoseen_GB
dc.contributor.authorGilcreast, Darlene M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorDunn, Mary Z.en_US
dc.contributor.authorSteinberg, John S.en_US
dc.author.detailsDarlene M. Gilcreast, RN, PhD, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, USA, email: nacnsorg@nacns.org; Mary Z. Dunn, RN, PhD; John S. Steinberg, DPMen_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10755/163861-
dc.description.abstractProblem and Significance: Obesity and Type 2 diabetes have reached epidemic proportions in the U.S. Long-term complications of diabetes are costly in human suffering and healthcare costs. If subjects' mean blood glucose (A1c) can be lowered by 1%, risk of stroke and heart attack can be reduced by 40% and may reduce long-term costs of diabetes care. Purpose: The purpose is to test effects of water aerobics, moderately vigorous calisthenics performed in "nipple-deep" water, on outcomes in overweight Hispanics and African Americans 40-65 years of age with Type 2 diabetes. The overarching goal is to reduce insulin resistance, thereby improving glucose utilization, lowering blood glucose, and improving blood flow. Research Questions: Overweight subjects who participate in water aerobics three times per week for 12 weeks will lose 10% of their body weight and lower A1c by 10%. Their peripheral circulation, moods, and abilities to perform activities of daily living will improve. Method: A one-group pre/post-test pilot study was used. Dependent variables are: weight, hemoglobin A1c (A1c), finger-stick blood glucose (pre and post exercise), lipid profile, body tape measurements, transcutaneous oxygen (TCpO2)/carbon dioxide (TCpCO2), scores on the Profile of Mood States, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and four YMCA fitness tests. The independent variable is: group water aerobics, 3 times per week for twelve weeks. The sample is 17 Hispanics and 17 African Americans, males and females 40-65 years of age, which is representative of most people with Type 2 diabetes. Findings: Data are only available for 11 subjects. Another 9 subjects are enrolled and nearing completion. Mean weight loss was 2.27 lbs. (1% of initial mean weight, 217 lbs), women, -1.8 lbs.; men, -4.25 lbs. (Range -12.0 to +5). Initial A1c levels were 6.1% to 12.5% (target <7%). Overall, A1c was lowered by a mean -0.4% (-1.9 to +0.4). Mean inches lost were: 1. neck = -0.5 inches (-1.5 to +.5), 2. waist = -1.85 inches (-6 to 0), 3. hips = -1.35 inches (-2.25 to +1), 4. thighs = +0.2 inches (-2 to +4). Mean TCpO2 decreased by 2mmHg (-17 to +16). Mean TCpCO2 increased by 1.25mmHg (-11 to +15). Mean daily change in blood glucose was -70 mg/dl/session (Range +22 to -111). All subjects reported that the exercise sessions were valuable and enjoyable. Many continue to exercise following the end of the study participation. The changes observed have not been subjected to statistics because of the small number of results; however, it can be observed that pre and post-measurement changes would not be significant because they are small thus far. Discussion: Preliminary conclusions are that water aerobics is an effective and pleasurable way to exercise regularly and reduce A1c. A decrease of 1% of A1c has been shown by the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study to reduce risk of stroke and heart attack by 40%. Thus small changes in A1c are clinically significant. More data are needed to assess the effect of water aerobics on weight loss. It was found that glucose response to exercise is individualized. Some subjects gained weight after they had better glucose control because calories previously lost in the urine were being stored as fat due to lower blood sugar and increased insulin sensitivity. Implications for Nursing: Diabetes is a chronic disease that is difficult to control for patients and healthcare providers. It requires a large amount of financial and emotional resources to combat the long-term complications of elevated blood glucose levels: blindness, stroke, heart attack, kidney failure, peripheral vascular disease, peripheral neuropathy, and lower extremity amputation. Nurses must work with patients and the interdisciplinary diabetes team to obtain improved outcomes.en_GB
dc.date.available2011-10-27T11:40:29Z-
dc.date.issued2011-10-27en_GB
dc.date.accessioned2011-10-27T11:40:29Z-
dc.conference.date2004en_US
dc.conference.name2004 NACNS Conference, Renaissance in CNS Practice: Transforming Nursing in the 21st Centuryen_US
dc.conference.hostNACNS - National Association of Clinical Nurse Specialistsen_US
dc.conference.locationSan Antonio, Texas, USAen_US
dc.descriptionConference theme: Renaissance in CNS Practice: Transforming Nursing in the 21st Century, held on March 11 to 13, 2004 in San Antonio, Texas, USAen_US
dc.description.noteThis is an abstract-only submission. If the author has submitted a full-text item based on this abstract, you may find it by browsing the Virginia Henderson Global Nursing e-Repository by author. If author contact information is available in this abstract, please feel free to contact him or her with your queries regarding this submission. Alternatively, please contact the conference host, journal, or publisher (according to the circumstance) for further details regarding this item. If a citation is listed in this record, the item has been published and is available via open-access avenues or a journal/database subscription. Contact your library for assistance in obtaining the as-published article.en_US
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