Effect of Child Gender and Maternal Ethnicity on the Interaction of Mothers and Prematurely Born Children

2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10755/165862
Category:
Abstract
Type:
Presentation
Title:
Effect of Child Gender and Maternal Ethnicity on the Interaction of Mothers and Prematurely Born Children
Author(s):
Cho, June
Author Details:
June Cho, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill School of Nursing, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA, email: jcho@uab.edu
Abstract:
The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of child gender and maternal ethnicity on the interactions of mothers and their 3-year prematurely born children, after controlling for maternal education and child illness severity. Participants were 53 prematurely born 3-year children and their primary caretakers. They were in a larger study on the relationship between behavioral development during the neonatal period and outcomes at age 3. These infants were at high risk for developmental problems because they had a birth weight less than 1500 g, or required mechanical ventilation. Of the children, 25 were girls and 28 were boys. Of the 48 participating mothers or primary caretakers, 21 were white and 27 were non-white. Instruments assessing the interactive behaviors of mother and prematurely born child were: Naturalistic observation of mother-infants interactions, the HOME Inventory (0-3 version), Stanford-Binet Intelligence Quotient (IQ), Pediatric Extended Examination at Three (PEET), Vulnerable Child Scale, and Neurobiological Risk Score (NBRS). The child and mother were visited at their home for two 2-hour naturalistic observations, each with 1-2 weeks apart, and the HOME inventory was scored. T-Tests and Chi-square tests were used to compare child and maternal demographic characteristics by child gender and maternal ethnicity. A 2 x 2 factorial design and ANCOVA were used to determine the main and interaction effect of gender, ethnicity, and gender-by-ethnicity on the child and maternal behaviors as well as the HOME scores after controlling for maternal education and child's IQ, gestational age, and severity of neurological insults. Girls' IQs were significantly higher than boys' IQs. Children of white mothers had higher IQs, heavier birth weights, and older gestational ages. Regardless of maternal ethnicity, mothers showed more positive behaviors and gestures towards girls than boys. Conversely, girls looked at their mothers more often than boys. Regardless of child gender, white mothers were more positive in their interactions with their children. White mothers' and girls' HOME scores were higher than non-white mothers' and boys'. Child's characteristics exerted more influence on the behavior of mother and child than maternal characteristics. After controlling for maternal education, girls showed more positive behaviors than boys. After controlling for child characteristics of IQ, gestational age, and severity of neurological insults, children with higher IQs talked more and showed more positive affect, while children of older gestational age played more. In conclusion, non-white mothers had the least positive interactives with their premature infants, especially with boys. For this population, intense and continuous nursing intervention is warranted for better mother-child interactions not only for the first year of child's life but also at least until 3 years.
Repository Posting Date:
27-Oct-2011
Date of Publication:
27-Oct-2011
Conference Host:
Southern Nursing Research Society
Note:
This is an abstract-only submission. If the author has submitted a full-text item based on this abstract, you may find it by browsing the Virginia Henderson Global Nursing e-Repository by author. If author contact information is available in this abstract, please feel free to contact him or her with your queries regarding this submission. Alternatively, please contact the conference host, journal, or publisher (according to the circumstance) for further details regarding this item. If a citation is listed in this record, the item has been published and is available via open-access avenues or a journal/database subscription. Contact your library for assistance in obtaining the as-published article.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.type.categoryAbstracten_US
dc.typePresentationen_GB
dc.titleEffect of Child Gender and Maternal Ethnicity on the Interaction of Mothers and Prematurely Born Childrenen_GB
dc.contributor.authorCho, Juneen_US
dc.author.detailsJune Cho, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill School of Nursing, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA, email: jcho@uab.eduen_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10755/165862-
dc.description.abstractThe purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of child gender and maternal ethnicity on the interactions of mothers and their 3-year prematurely born children, after controlling for maternal education and child illness severity. Participants were 53 prematurely born 3-year children and their primary caretakers. They were in a larger study on the relationship between behavioral development during the neonatal period and outcomes at age 3. These infants were at high risk for developmental problems because they had a birth weight less than 1500 g, or required mechanical ventilation. Of the children, 25 were girls and 28 were boys. Of the 48 participating mothers or primary caretakers, 21 were white and 27 were non-white. Instruments assessing the interactive behaviors of mother and prematurely born child were: Naturalistic observation of mother-infants interactions, the HOME Inventory (0-3 version), Stanford-Binet Intelligence Quotient (IQ), Pediatric Extended Examination at Three (PEET), Vulnerable Child Scale, and Neurobiological Risk Score (NBRS). The child and mother were visited at their home for two 2-hour naturalistic observations, each with 1-2 weeks apart, and the HOME inventory was scored. T-Tests and Chi-square tests were used to compare child and maternal demographic characteristics by child gender and maternal ethnicity. A 2 x 2 factorial design and ANCOVA were used to determine the main and interaction effect of gender, ethnicity, and gender-by-ethnicity on the child and maternal behaviors as well as the HOME scores after controlling for maternal education and child's IQ, gestational age, and severity of neurological insults. Girls' IQs were significantly higher than boys' IQs. Children of white mothers had higher IQs, heavier birth weights, and older gestational ages. Regardless of maternal ethnicity, mothers showed more positive behaviors and gestures towards girls than boys. Conversely, girls looked at their mothers more often than boys. Regardless of child gender, white mothers were more positive in their interactions with their children. White mothers' and girls' HOME scores were higher than non-white mothers' and boys'. Child's characteristics exerted more influence on the behavior of mother and child than maternal characteristics. After controlling for maternal education, girls showed more positive behaviors than boys. After controlling for child characteristics of IQ, gestational age, and severity of neurological insults, children with higher IQs talked more and showed more positive affect, while children of older gestational age played more. In conclusion, non-white mothers had the least positive interactives with their premature infants, especially with boys. For this population, intense and continuous nursing intervention is warranted for better mother-child interactions not only for the first year of child's life but also at least until 3 years.en_GB
dc.date.available2011-10-27T14:35:16Z-
dc.date.issued2011-10-27en_GB
dc.date.accessioned2011-10-27T14:35:16Z-
dc.conference.hostSouthern Nursing Research Societyen_US
dc.description.noteThis is an abstract-only submission. If the author has submitted a full-text item based on this abstract, you may find it by browsing the Virginia Henderson Global Nursing e-Repository by author. If author contact information is available in this abstract, please feel free to contact him or her with your queries regarding this submission. Alternatively, please contact the conference host, journal, or publisher (according to the circumstance) for further details regarding this item. If a citation is listed in this record, the item has been published and is available via open-access avenues or a journal/database subscription. Contact your library for assistance in obtaining the as-published article.-
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