2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10755/166038
Category:
Abstract
Type:
Presentation
Title:
Attrition: Threat To Validity In Experimental Design In Geriatric Nursing Research
Author(s):
Somboontanont, Wilaipun
Author Details:
Wilaipun Somboontanont, MSN, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Nursing, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA, (updated February 2015) email: wilaipun.som@mahidol.ac.th
Abstract:
One of the two criteria for evaluating experimental design is internal validity. The internal validity of an experimental design concerns the degree to which changes in the dependent variables (effect) can be attributed to the independent variables (cause) (Huck et al., 1974). The ideal of experimental design is that the researcher maintains control or minimizes the extraneous variables that might invalidate the results of the experiment (Brink & Wood, 1989; Huck, et al., 1974). Cook and Campbell (1979) identified one type of extraneous variable, attrition, that, if remaining uncontrolled, may lead to the questions about effects of the independent variable. However, Henson et al. (1985) stated that attrition has been largely ignored in published reports of experimental studies or treated only in a superficial manner, which does not allow an assessment of this threat to internal validity. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the issue of attrition as it relates to nursing research on an elderly population. This paper will also discuss how attrition can be minimized. Attrition refers to the loss of subjects between the pretests and the posttest. If the subjects who drop out of an experiment are not similar to those who remain, the mean posttest score could differ from the mean pretests score simply because some of the subjects are not measured at the second time. Attrition is a threat when an effect may be due to the different kinds of persons who dropped out of a particular treatment group during the course of an experiment (Cook and Campbell, 1979). Therefore, major weaknesses related to attrition can result if non-representative groups remain in the study. There are several characteristics of elderly populations which make study attrition more likely such as subjects' pride, or fear that they cannot perform protocol tasks adequately. Death is an obvious source of attrition of subjects in longitudinal studies. Because of these and similar problems, Zimmer et al. (1985) stated that an attrition rate of over 10% per year is not unusual. The most common strategy for dealing with attrition is to anticipate it, and include a larger number of subjects in the study. Many of the causes of attrition can be managed if adequate plans for dealing with them exist before a project begins. In preventing attrition, an important first step in overcoming this dropout problem involves the identification of those factors in each individual and the environment that contribute to noncompliance. The other methods to help subjects bond with the study are communication, keeping in touch with subjects, respect for subjects' time and effort for the study, and flexibility in scheduling data collection. Incentives and rewards for subjects may also be used in minimizing attrition (Wineman & Durand, 1992). Knowing about predictive variables such as decreased physical capacity, decreased social interaction and life is important in improving the ability to retain subjects in experimental studies and can lead to more valid intervention effects.
Repository Posting Date:
27-Oct-2011
Date of Publication:
27-Oct-2011
Conference Host:
Southern Nursing Research Society
Note:
This is an abstract-only submission. If the author has submitted a full-text item based on this abstract, you may find it by browsing the Virginia Henderson Global Nursing e-Repository by author. If author contact information is available in this abstract, please feel free to contact him or her with your queries regarding this submission. Alternatively, please contact the conference host, journal, or publisher (according to the circumstance) for further details regarding this item. If a citation is listed in this record, the item has been published and is available via open-access avenues or a journal/database subscription. Contact your library for assistance in obtaining the as-published article.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.type.categoryAbstracten_US
dc.typePresentationen_GB
dc.titleAttrition: Threat To Validity In Experimental Design In Geriatric Nursing Researchen_GB
dc.contributor.authorSomboontanont, Wilaipunen_US
dc.author.detailsWilaipun Somboontanont, MSN, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Nursing, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA, (updated February 2015) email: wilaipun.som@mahidol.ac.then_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10755/166038-
dc.description.abstractOne of the two criteria for evaluating experimental design is internal validity. The internal validity of an experimental design concerns the degree to which changes in the dependent variables (effect) can be attributed to the independent variables (cause) (Huck et al., 1974). The ideal of experimental design is that the researcher maintains control or minimizes the extraneous variables that might invalidate the results of the experiment (Brink & Wood, 1989; Huck, et al., 1974). Cook and Campbell (1979) identified one type of extraneous variable, attrition, that, if remaining uncontrolled, may lead to the questions about effects of the independent variable. However, Henson et al. (1985) stated that attrition has been largely ignored in published reports of experimental studies or treated only in a superficial manner, which does not allow an assessment of this threat to internal validity. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the issue of attrition as it relates to nursing research on an elderly population. This paper will also discuss how attrition can be minimized. Attrition refers to the loss of subjects between the pretests and the posttest. If the subjects who drop out of an experiment are not similar to those who remain, the mean posttest score could differ from the mean pretests score simply because some of the subjects are not measured at the second time. Attrition is a threat when an effect may be due to the different kinds of persons who dropped out of a particular treatment group during the course of an experiment (Cook and Campbell, 1979). Therefore, major weaknesses related to attrition can result if non-representative groups remain in the study. There are several characteristics of elderly populations which make study attrition more likely such as subjects' pride, or fear that they cannot perform protocol tasks adequately. Death is an obvious source of attrition of subjects in longitudinal studies. Because of these and similar problems, Zimmer et al. (1985) stated that an attrition rate of over 10% per year is not unusual. The most common strategy for dealing with attrition is to anticipate it, and include a larger number of subjects in the study. Many of the causes of attrition can be managed if adequate plans for dealing with them exist before a project begins. In preventing attrition, an important first step in overcoming this dropout problem involves the identification of those factors in each individual and the environment that contribute to noncompliance. The other methods to help subjects bond with the study are communication, keeping in touch with subjects, respect for subjects' time and effort for the study, and flexibility in scheduling data collection. Incentives and rewards for subjects may also be used in minimizing attrition (Wineman & Durand, 1992). Knowing about predictive variables such as decreased physical capacity, decreased social interaction and life is important in improving the ability to retain subjects in experimental studies and can lead to more valid intervention effects.en_GB
dc.date.available2011-10-27T14:38:56Z-
dc.date.issued2011-10-27en_GB
dc.date.accessioned2011-10-27T14:38:56Z-
dc.conference.hostSouthern Nursing Research Societyen_US
dc.description.noteThis is an abstract-only submission. If the author has submitted a full-text item based on this abstract, you may find it by browsing the Virginia Henderson Global Nursing e-Repository by author. If author contact information is available in this abstract, please feel free to contact him or her with your queries regarding this submission. Alternatively, please contact the conference host, journal, or publisher (according to the circumstance) for further details regarding this item. If a citation is listed in this record, the item has been published and is available via open-access avenues or a journal/database subscription. Contact your library for assistance in obtaining the as-published article.-
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