2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10755/166094
Category:
Abstract
Type:
Presentation
Title:
Approximating Reliability And Precision In Clinical Measures: An Overview
Author(s):
Holtzclaw, Barbara
Author Details:
Barbara Holtzclaw, PhD, Director, Office of Nursing Research, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, School of Nursing, San Antonio, Texas, USA, email: HOLTZCLAW@uthscsa.edu
Abstract:
The examination of dynamic phenomena in clinical research and practice becomes problematic as investigators attempt to measure physical events, energy expenditure, physical findings and related health outcomes. Accurate measurements are needed to assess physical outcomes of prevention and intervention strategies and to characterize study groups. The purpose of this symposium is to describe the measurement of clinical variables associated with health outcomes and discuss problems and solutions related to the measurement of clinical phenomena. Discussions of reliability and validity of physical measurement techniques in the literature, emphasize accuracy, precision and sensitivity of those measures. Gold standard instrumentation follows to provide standards against which other measurement devices and scales may be compared. To measure energy expenditure of physical exercise and shivering, the metabolic cart and electromyographic monitoring provides the gold standard. However, in clinical or remote locations, or with vulnerable patients, such measures may not be feasible. As alternatives, visible shivering scales and indirect estimates of tissue oxygen consumption are used. Problems arise when necessary drugs pose competing hypotheses for outcomes affecting shivering. Body temperature varies widely with measurement site and modality, while new technology introduces factors beyond basic linearity, accuracy, and reproducibility of the thermometer. Problematic measurement is found in clinical research related to obesity and exercise. Salient examples are drawn from studies which attempt to quantify overweight, obesity and energy expenditure from physical activity. Although body fatness was formerly considered in terms of body weight, rather than body composition, body composition is now considered as multi-component (body fat, dry soft tissue, bone and water). Body fat and fat free mass, with body density, are now thought to be the gold standard. Physical activity includes a complex set of multi-dimensional behaviors that vary with the characteristics and desired outcome of the activity. The lack of clear definitions, standardized physical activity measurements makes relationships between physical activity and health outcomes difficult to establish. Needed are physical activity assessment measures that quantify relationships between absolute level of energy expenditure and disease. Accurate definition of levels of physical activity may be sufficient to demonstrate intervention effects or compare outcomes or risk factors between physically active and inactive individuals. A trade-off exists between selection for an optimal measures for clinical phenomena, and consideration of cost, convenience, accuracy and reproducibility of the measure. Multiple facets of these variables pose challenges and need for informed choice.
Repository Posting Date:
27-Oct-2011
Date of Publication:
27-Oct-2011
Conference Host:
Southern Nursing Research Society
Note:
This is an abstract-only submission. If the author has submitted a full-text item based on this abstract, you may find it by browsing the Virginia Henderson Global Nursing e-Repository by author. If author contact information is available in this abstract, please feel free to contact him or her with your queries regarding this submission. Alternatively, please contact the conference host, journal, or publisher (according to the circumstance) for further details regarding this item. If a citation is listed in this record, the item has been published and is available via open-access avenues or a journal/database subscription. Contact your library for assistance in obtaining the as-published article.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.type.categoryAbstracten_US
dc.typePresentationen_GB
dc.titleApproximating Reliability And Precision In Clinical Measures: An Overviewen_GB
dc.contributor.authorHoltzclaw, Barbaraen_US
dc.author.detailsBarbara Holtzclaw, PhD, Director, Office of Nursing Research, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, School of Nursing, San Antonio, Texas, USA, email: HOLTZCLAW@uthscsa.eduen_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10755/166094-
dc.description.abstractThe examination of dynamic phenomena in clinical research and practice becomes problematic as investigators attempt to measure physical events, energy expenditure, physical findings and related health outcomes. Accurate measurements are needed to assess physical outcomes of prevention and intervention strategies and to characterize study groups. The purpose of this symposium is to describe the measurement of clinical variables associated with health outcomes and discuss problems and solutions related to the measurement of clinical phenomena. Discussions of reliability and validity of physical measurement techniques in the literature, emphasize accuracy, precision and sensitivity of those measures. Gold standard instrumentation follows to provide standards against which other measurement devices and scales may be compared. To measure energy expenditure of physical exercise and shivering, the metabolic cart and electromyographic monitoring provides the gold standard. However, in clinical or remote locations, or with vulnerable patients, such measures may not be feasible. As alternatives, visible shivering scales and indirect estimates of tissue oxygen consumption are used. Problems arise when necessary drugs pose competing hypotheses for outcomes affecting shivering. Body temperature varies widely with measurement site and modality, while new technology introduces factors beyond basic linearity, accuracy, and reproducibility of the thermometer. Problematic measurement is found in clinical research related to obesity and exercise. Salient examples are drawn from studies which attempt to quantify overweight, obesity and energy expenditure from physical activity. Although body fatness was formerly considered in terms of body weight, rather than body composition, body composition is now considered as multi-component (body fat, dry soft tissue, bone and water). Body fat and fat free mass, with body density, are now thought to be the gold standard. Physical activity includes a complex set of multi-dimensional behaviors that vary with the characteristics and desired outcome of the activity. The lack of clear definitions, standardized physical activity measurements makes relationships between physical activity and health outcomes difficult to establish. Needed are physical activity assessment measures that quantify relationships between absolute level of energy expenditure and disease. Accurate definition of levels of physical activity may be sufficient to demonstrate intervention effects or compare outcomes or risk factors between physically active and inactive individuals. A trade-off exists between selection for an optimal measures for clinical phenomena, and consideration of cost, convenience, accuracy and reproducibility of the measure. Multiple facets of these variables pose challenges and need for informed choice.en_GB
dc.date.available2011-10-27T14:40:05Z-
dc.date.issued2011-10-27en_GB
dc.date.accessioned2011-10-27T14:40:05Z-
dc.conference.hostSouthern Nursing Research Societyen_US
dc.description.noteThis is an abstract-only submission. If the author has submitted a full-text item based on this abstract, you may find it by browsing the Virginia Henderson Global Nursing e-Repository by author. If author contact information is available in this abstract, please feel free to contact him or her with your queries regarding this submission. Alternatively, please contact the conference host, journal, or publisher (according to the circumstance) for further details regarding this item. If a citation is listed in this record, the item has been published and is available via open-access avenues or a journal/database subscription. Contact your library for assistance in obtaining the as-published article.-
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