Racial and Gender Differences in Quality of Life Prior to and Following KidneyTransplantation

2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10755/166188
Category:
Abstract
Type:
Presentation
Title:
Racial and Gender Differences in Quality of Life Prior to and Following KidneyTransplantation
Author(s):
Hathaway, Donna
Author Details:
Donna Hathaway, PhD, Assistant Professor, University of Tennessee, Memphis College of Nursing, Memphis, Tennessee, USA, email: dhathaway@utmem1.utmem.edu
Abstract:
Patients who undergo kidney transplantation can now anticipate about a 90% success rate for the procedure. Because transplantation is now so successful, people are becoming more concerned about how this procedure affects quality of life (QoL). Although several studies indicate (QoL) improves for kidney recipients, oftentimes information about the patients' pretransplant QoL in lacking and studies rarely consider other factors which may influence QoL such as race and gender. The aim of this study was, therefore, to ascertain if race or gender influenced QoL prior to or following transplantation by addressing the following research questions. 1. What are the racial and gender differences in QoL for patients before kidney transplant? 2. What are the racial and gender differences in QoL for patients at 6 and 12 months after kidney transplantation? The study included 90 patients without diabetes who underwent kidney transplanttation. Demographic characteristics of the sample are displayed below. group number age mos of percent percent with percent dialysis employed HS education married Afr.-Amer. 36 39.5 18.8 36.1 66.7 47.2 Caucasians 54 39.2 27.4 70.4 77.8 63.0 Men 63 41.8 23.3 55.6 71.4 55.6 Women 27 33.5 25.5 59.3 77.7 59.3 Five questionnaires were administered to all transplant patients at the time of transplantation, and at 6 and 12 months posttransplant. The questionnaires included demographic and health history information, the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP=functional ability), the QoL Index (QLI=health and well-being), the Adult Self-Image Scales (ASIS=psychoemotional), and the General QoL Scale (GenQoL=global). Essentially all QoL scores showed some improvement for both racial and gender groups at 6 and 12 months after transplantation. The African-Americans did, however, report better scores than Caucasian recipients on most ASIS scales both before and after transplantation. However, because the Caucasian recipients had much lower pretransplant scores they were able to show greater improvment in the ASIS scales posttransplant. Similarly, 3 of 5 QLI scores were better for African-Americans before transplantation and again less improvement was seen for them posttransplant while the Caucasian recipients reported more improvement following transplantation. In contrast, SIP scores indicated African-American recipients had more compromised ability to function in every day tasks than did the Caucasian recipients both before and after transplantation. Gender differences in QoL outcomes were only manifested before transplantation for most of the scores that measured the ability to function in every day tasks. These differences disappeared, however, following transplantation. The findings of this study demonstrate that kidney transplantation enhances the QoL of all transplant recipients regardless of race or gender. Racial influences are, however, present. While African-American recipients achieve less improvement in some of the affective dimensions of QoL, this is likely due to a "ceiling effect" evidenced by their high pretransplant scores and the resultant inability to improve scores beyond this high level following transplantation. In contrast, measures of QoL that reflect the ability to perform every day tasks of living are more compromised for African-Americans and also demonstrate less improvement following transplantation than they do for Caucasians.
Repository Posting Date:
27-Oct-2011
Date of Publication:
27-Oct-2011
Conference Date:
Feb 29 - Mar 2, 1996
Conference Host:
Southern Nursing Research Society
Note:
This is an abstract-only submission. If the author has submitted a full-text item based on this abstract, you may find it by browsing the Virginia Henderson Global Nursing e-Repository by author. If author contact information is available in this abstract, please feel free to contact him or her with your queries regarding this submission. Alternatively, please contact the conference host, journal, or publisher (according to the circumstance) for further details regarding this item. If a citation is listed in this record, the item has been published and is available via open-access avenues or a journal/database subscription. Contact your library for assistance in obtaining the as-published article.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.type.categoryAbstracten_US
dc.typePresentationen_GB
dc.titleRacial and Gender Differences in Quality of Life Prior to and Following KidneyTransplantationen_GB
dc.contributor.authorHathaway, Donnaen_US
dc.author.detailsDonna Hathaway, PhD, Assistant Professor, University of Tennessee, Memphis College of Nursing, Memphis, Tennessee, USA, email: dhathaway@utmem1.utmem.eduen_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10755/166188-
dc.description.abstractPatients who undergo kidney transplantation can now anticipate about a 90% success rate for the procedure. Because transplantation is now so successful, people are becoming more concerned about how this procedure affects quality of life (QoL). Although several studies indicate (QoL) improves for kidney recipients, oftentimes information about the patients' pretransplant QoL in lacking and studies rarely consider other factors which may influence QoL such as race and gender. The aim of this study was, therefore, to ascertain if race or gender influenced QoL prior to or following transplantation by addressing the following research questions. 1. What are the racial and gender differences in QoL for patients before kidney transplant? 2. What are the racial and gender differences in QoL for patients at 6 and 12 months after kidney transplantation? The study included 90 patients without diabetes who underwent kidney transplanttation. Demographic characteristics of the sample are displayed below. group number age mos of percent percent with percent dialysis employed HS education married Afr.-Amer. 36 39.5 18.8 36.1 66.7 47.2 Caucasians 54 39.2 27.4 70.4 77.8 63.0 Men 63 41.8 23.3 55.6 71.4 55.6 Women 27 33.5 25.5 59.3 77.7 59.3 Five questionnaires were administered to all transplant patients at the time of transplantation, and at 6 and 12 months posttransplant. The questionnaires included demographic and health history information, the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP=functional ability), the QoL Index (QLI=health and well-being), the Adult Self-Image Scales (ASIS=psychoemotional), and the General QoL Scale (GenQoL=global). Essentially all QoL scores showed some improvement for both racial and gender groups at 6 and 12 months after transplantation. The African-Americans did, however, report better scores than Caucasian recipients on most ASIS scales both before and after transplantation. However, because the Caucasian recipients had much lower pretransplant scores they were able to show greater improvment in the ASIS scales posttransplant. Similarly, 3 of 5 QLI scores were better for African-Americans before transplantation and again less improvement was seen for them posttransplant while the Caucasian recipients reported more improvement following transplantation. In contrast, SIP scores indicated African-American recipients had more compromised ability to function in every day tasks than did the Caucasian recipients both before and after transplantation. Gender differences in QoL outcomes were only manifested before transplantation for most of the scores that measured the ability to function in every day tasks. These differences disappeared, however, following transplantation. The findings of this study demonstrate that kidney transplantation enhances the QoL of all transplant recipients regardless of race or gender. Racial influences are, however, present. While African-American recipients achieve less improvement in some of the affective dimensions of QoL, this is likely due to a "ceiling effect" evidenced by their high pretransplant scores and the resultant inability to improve scores beyond this high level following transplantation. In contrast, measures of QoL that reflect the ability to perform every day tasks of living are more compromised for African-Americans and also demonstrate less improvement following transplantation than they do for Caucasians.en_GB
dc.date.available2011-10-27T14:42:03Z-
dc.date.issued2011-10-27en_GB
dc.date.accessioned2011-10-27T14:42:03Z-
dc.conference.dateFeb 29 - Mar 2, 1996en_US
dc.conference.hostSouthern Nursing Research Societyen_US
dc.description.noteThis is an abstract-only submission. If the author has submitted a full-text item based on this abstract, you may find it by browsing the Virginia Henderson Global Nursing e-Repository by author. If author contact information is available in this abstract, please feel free to contact him or her with your queries regarding this submission. Alternatively, please contact the conference host, journal, or publisher (according to the circumstance) for further details regarding this item. If a citation is listed in this record, the item has been published and is available via open-access avenues or a journal/database subscription. Contact your library for assistance in obtaining the as-published article.-
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