2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10755/211572
Type:
Research Study
Title:
WORKING FOR YOURSELF: MICROENTERPRISE AND WOMEN'S HEALTH
Abstract:
Purpose/Aims: The purpose of this study was to explore precarious employment and women’s health within the context of microenterprise. The specific aim was to identify the health concerns of low-income women who utilized either funds or development training from Women’s Economic Self-sufficiency Team (WESST) a non-profit organization in New Mexico (NM). Rationale/Conceptual Basis/Background: Social determinants of health research focus on social conditions that affect health and create health disparities. As labor markets respond to a changing global economy, there has been a trend toward nonstandard types of employment sometimes referred to as precarious employment. The term often implies lack of job security and/or benefits. Although reports have been inconsistent, the majority of studies have suggested that precarious employment can be detrimental to health. In contrast, several researchers have purported that the flexibility associated with precarious employment may be beneficial to health. There are almost 700 microenterprise programs in the United States that offer training and small loans to low-income individuals, the majority of who are women, to start small businesses. WESST provides statewide small business development to economically disadvantaged New Mexicans through training and financial resources. The theoretical framework that guided this research was based on social ecology theory which identifies relationships and pathways between people and their environments. Methods: Data were generated in NM in 2010 using five focus groups with women who were affiliated with one of the regional WESST sites around NM. Five transcripts were coded by the principle investigator and a second independent coder. Data were analyzed using content analysis. The degree of inter-rater agreement was determined by calculating the Cohen’s Kappa (K), percentage agreement (Po), prevalence index (PI), bias index (BI), and prevalence-adjusted and bias-adjusted Kappa (PABAK). Results: Two broad themes emerged from these data: 1) Working for Yourself and 2) Strategies along with multiple categories and codes related to microenterprise and health. While the women expressed concern about social isolation, depression, and the economy; flexibility, freedom, and feeling purposeful were motivators to pursue a microenterprise. The Kappa (K) statistics on the five transcripts ranged from 0.02 to 0.2 which indicated poor inter-rater agreement. This might be because the ratings between the two raters were nearly all positive. In such cases, it is difficult to interpret Kappa alone and the adjusted Kappa (i.e., PABAK) needs to be used. Thus, we calculated additional agreement indices of the five transcripts and they revealed that there was a good inter-rater agreement: PABAK, 0.60- 0.74; Po, 0.78- 0.85; PI, 0.72-0.84; and BI, -0.01-0.1. Implications: Starting a small business in today’s fragile economy can be risky and to date, there is minimal research that explores the relationship between precarious employment and health within the context of microenterprise. Women are one of the strongest links to family health and represent the majority of microenterprise owners; therefore investing in interventions that address their concerns may decrease disparities and improve population health.
Keywords:
Low income women; Women' health; Microenterprise
Repository Posting Date:
20-Feb-2012
Date of Publication:
20-Feb-2012
Other Identifiers:
5500
Sponsors:
Western Institute of Nursing

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.typeResearch Studyen_GB
dc.titleWORKING FOR YOURSELF: MICROENTERPRISE AND WOMEN'S HEALTHen_GB
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10755/211572-
dc.description.abstractPurpose/Aims: The purpose of this study was to explore precarious employment and women’s health within the context of microenterprise. The specific aim was to identify the health concerns of low-income women who utilized either funds or development training from Women’s Economic Self-sufficiency Team (WESST) a non-profit organization in New Mexico (NM). Rationale/Conceptual Basis/Background: Social determinants of health research focus on social conditions that affect health and create health disparities. As labor markets respond to a changing global economy, there has been a trend toward nonstandard types of employment sometimes referred to as precarious employment. The term often implies lack of job security and/or benefits. Although reports have been inconsistent, the majority of studies have suggested that precarious employment can be detrimental to health. In contrast, several researchers have purported that the flexibility associated with precarious employment may be beneficial to health. There are almost 700 microenterprise programs in the United States that offer training and small loans to low-income individuals, the majority of who are women, to start small businesses. WESST provides statewide small business development to economically disadvantaged New Mexicans through training and financial resources. The theoretical framework that guided this research was based on social ecology theory which identifies relationships and pathways between people and their environments. Methods: Data were generated in NM in 2010 using five focus groups with women who were affiliated with one of the regional WESST sites around NM. Five transcripts were coded by the principle investigator and a second independent coder. Data were analyzed using content analysis. The degree of inter-rater agreement was determined by calculating the Cohen’s Kappa (K), percentage agreement (Po), prevalence index (PI), bias index (BI), and prevalence-adjusted and bias-adjusted Kappa (PABAK). Results: Two broad themes emerged from these data: 1) Working for Yourself and 2) Strategies along with multiple categories and codes related to microenterprise and health. While the women expressed concern about social isolation, depression, and the economy; flexibility, freedom, and feeling purposeful were motivators to pursue a microenterprise. The Kappa (K) statistics on the five transcripts ranged from 0.02 to 0.2 which indicated poor inter-rater agreement. This might be because the ratings between the two raters were nearly all positive. In such cases, it is difficult to interpret Kappa alone and the adjusted Kappa (i.e., PABAK) needs to be used. Thus, we calculated additional agreement indices of the five transcripts and they revealed that there was a good inter-rater agreement: PABAK, 0.60- 0.74; Po, 0.78- 0.85; PI, 0.72-0.84; and BI, -0.01-0.1. Implications: Starting a small business in today’s fragile economy can be risky and to date, there is minimal research that explores the relationship between precarious employment and health within the context of microenterprise. Women are one of the strongest links to family health and represent the majority of microenterprise owners; therefore investing in interventions that address their concerns may decrease disparities and improve population health.en_GB
dc.subjectLow income womenen_GB
dc.subjectWomen' healthen_GB
dc.subjectMicroenterpriseen_GB
dc.date.available2012-02-20T12:03:00Z-
dc.date.issued2012-02-20T12:03:00Z-
dc.date.accessioned2012-02-20T12:03:00Z-
dc.description.sponsorshipWestern Institute of Nursingen_GB
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