2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10755/211641
Type:
Research Study
Title:
GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX in YOUNG INFANTS: MOTHER–INFANT CHARACTERISTICS
Abstract:
Purpose. The aim of this study was to examine characteristics of mothers and infants who were enrolled in a study to investigate benefits of massage therapy for infants with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Background. Gastroesophageal reflux is regurgitation of gastric contents into the esophagus when the lower esophageal sphincter relaxes. Frequent regurgitation, irritability, and feeding difficulties are symptoms of a more complicated condition, GERD. Treatment typcially is directed at relieving acid reflux, but symptoms of GERD occur with both acid and nonacid reflux. A common treatment, Proton Pump Inhibitors, is no longer approved for infants less than 12 months of age. Examining characteristics of infants with GERD and their mothers has potential to develop alternative treatment options. Methods. Infants were 6 to 10 weeks of age. They were diagnosed with GERD and referred by their pediatrician. We further screened with the Infant Gastroesophageal Reflux Questionnaire-Revised (I-GERQ-R) using the recommended cut-off of 16 for diagnosis (Kleinman, 2004). We observed a mother-infant feeding session, administered the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Edinburgh Depression Scale, the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised, and collected 72 hour infant sleep actigraphy data at baseline before initiating the first of 12 biweekly massage or nonmassage treatments. Results. Analysis for target enrollment (n = 40) for this study is in progress. Results are based on analysis of 27 infants and mothers. The mean infant I-GERQ-R score was 22.6 +/- 4.2, and 85% of infants were on anti-reflux medication. Feeding observations were scored using the NCAST Parent Child Interaction Feeding Scale (Sumner & Spietz, 1996). Maternal scores in our study were lower than NCAST national norms on Social-Emotional Growth Fostering (p <.0001), Cognitive Growth Fostering (p <.0001), Infant Clarity of Cues (p = .034), and Infant Responsivity (p <.0001). The mean total maternal score, 38.68, and the mean infant score, 17.56, also were lower than the NCAST national norms (p <.0001). Mean scores for anxiety and depression were within normal limits, but higher levels of maternal state anxiety correlated moderately with infant fear (r = .46) and sadness (r = .41). Maternal trait anxiety and depression correlated negatively with infant soothability and cuddliness (r = -.66 to r = -.77; p <.01). Infants slept a daily average of 8.2 hours which is less than 13.5 hours (p <.0001) reported by Thomas & Foreman (2005) for this age group. Implications. Although findings are preliminary, maternal-infant interaction and infant sleep are compromised in infants experiencing GERD symptoms, despite treatment with anti-reflux medication. Others have reported ineffective treatment for clinical symptoms with anti-reflux medication in infants (Chen et al, 2011). Mother-infant feeding behavior, maternal emotional states, and infant temperament may be fruitful areas to target for future intervention research and treatment.
Keywords:
Infants; Gastroesophageal reflux disease; GERD; Massage therapy
Repository Posting Date:
20-Feb-2012
Date of Publication:
20-Feb-2012
Other Identifiers:
5631
Sponsors:
Western Institute of Nursing

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.typeResearch Studyen_GB
dc.titleGASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX in YOUNG INFANTS: MOTHER–INFANT CHARACTERISTICSen_GB
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10755/211641-
dc.description.abstractPurpose. The aim of this study was to examine characteristics of mothers and infants who were enrolled in a study to investigate benefits of massage therapy for infants with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Background. Gastroesophageal reflux is regurgitation of gastric contents into the esophagus when the lower esophageal sphincter relaxes. Frequent regurgitation, irritability, and feeding difficulties are symptoms of a more complicated condition, GERD. Treatment typcially is directed at relieving acid reflux, but symptoms of GERD occur with both acid and nonacid reflux. A common treatment, Proton Pump Inhibitors, is no longer approved for infants less than 12 months of age. Examining characteristics of infants with GERD and their mothers has potential to develop alternative treatment options. Methods. Infants were 6 to 10 weeks of age. They were diagnosed with GERD and referred by their pediatrician. We further screened with the Infant Gastroesophageal Reflux Questionnaire-Revised (I-GERQ-R) using the recommended cut-off of 16 for diagnosis (Kleinman, 2004). We observed a mother-infant feeding session, administered the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Edinburgh Depression Scale, the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised, and collected 72 hour infant sleep actigraphy data at baseline before initiating the first of 12 biweekly massage or nonmassage treatments. Results. Analysis for target enrollment (n = 40) for this study is in progress. Results are based on analysis of 27 infants and mothers. The mean infant I-GERQ-R score was 22.6 +/- 4.2, and 85% of infants were on anti-reflux medication. Feeding observations were scored using the NCAST Parent Child Interaction Feeding Scale (Sumner & Spietz, 1996). Maternal scores in our study were lower than NCAST national norms on Social-Emotional Growth Fostering (p <.0001), Cognitive Growth Fostering (p <.0001), Infant Clarity of Cues (p = .034), and Infant Responsivity (p <.0001). The mean total maternal score, 38.68, and the mean infant score, 17.56, also were lower than the NCAST national norms (p <.0001). Mean scores for anxiety and depression were within normal limits, but higher levels of maternal state anxiety correlated moderately with infant fear (r = .46) and sadness (r = .41). Maternal trait anxiety and depression correlated negatively with infant soothability and cuddliness (r = -.66 to r = -.77; p <.01). Infants slept a daily average of 8.2 hours which is less than 13.5 hours (p <.0001) reported by Thomas & Foreman (2005) for this age group. Implications. Although findings are preliminary, maternal-infant interaction and infant sleep are compromised in infants experiencing GERD symptoms, despite treatment with anti-reflux medication. Others have reported ineffective treatment for clinical symptoms with anti-reflux medication in infants (Chen et al, 2011). Mother-infant feeding behavior, maternal emotional states, and infant temperament may be fruitful areas to target for future intervention research and treatment.en_GB
dc.subjectInfantsen_GB
dc.subjectGastroesophageal reflux diseaseen_GB
dc.subjectGERDen_GB
dc.subjectMassage therapyen_GB
dc.date.available2012-02-20T12:05:48Z-
dc.date.issued2012-02-20T12:05:48Z-
dc.date.accessioned2012-02-20T12:05:48Z-
dc.description.sponsorshipWestern Institute of Nursingen_GB
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