2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10755/211662
Type:
Research Study
Title:
Effect of Exercise on Biobehavioral Outcomes of Fatigue
Abstract:
Purpose/Aim: To examine the effect of a supervised endurance exercise program on biobehavioral outcomes of fatigue in women undergoing chemotherapy for early stage breast cancer. Specific aim was to investigate the effect of exercise on cancer-related fatigue (CRF) as measured by the Piper Fatigue Scale (PFS), quality of life as measured by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B), aerobic fitness as measured by maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max ), and immune function (pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and cortisol levels). Background: CRF is a multifactorial, biobehavioral phenomenon caused by a multitude of biological and psychobehavioral mechanisms. Despite its prevalence and significance, CRF remains undermanaged. Although evidence suggests that exercise attenuates CRF, very little is known regarding the biological mechanisms through which exercise produces this favorable effect. Understanding these mechanisms will provide empirical support for the role of exercise and will help in designing more specific exercise protocols. Design and Methods: Fourteen women were randomly assigned to control (n=7) or exercise (n=7) groups. Exercise consisted of treadmill mobilization with individualized progressive workload performed for 30-40 minutes, 2-3 times a week for the duration of chemotherapy. Data was collected at 4 time points: baseline, half way through, upon completion, and 3-4 weeks following the completion of chemotherapy and the exercise program. Immune function was measured in plasma in a subset of participants (3 exercise and 3 control). All other outcome variables were measured in all participants. Results: Outcome variables (VO2max, CRF, and quality of life) were analyzed using RMANOVA to test the global hypothesis of no difference between groups over all time points. In the cases where such overall significant differences were found, pair-wise differences at all time points between the two groups were analyzed using appropriate contrasts combined with Bonferroni adjusted significance levels. There were no baseline group differences in any of the outcome variables. CRF increased in all participants as they progressed through chemotherapy. Although statistically not significant, the magnitude of the increase was lower in the exercisers compared to the controls. Exercisers had significantly (0.037) higher scores on the physical well-being subscale of FACT-B and significantly higher VO2max (p =0.04) compared to the controls. The small sample size precluded statistical analyses of the immune marker findings. However, percent change from pre chemotherapy to end of chemotherapy favored the exercise group in all of the measured immune markers. Implications:Findings suggest that engaging in a modest program of regular exercise benefits patients undergoing chemotherapy by maintaining their aerobic fitness and improving their physical and functional well-being. These significant results, in the face of the small sample size, provide evidence to support the effectiveness of the exercise program in improving the outcomes measured in this study. Findings support the need for a larger scale follow-up study.
Keywords:
Breast cancer; Chemotherapy; Biobehavioral outcomes; Exercise; Fatigue
Repository Posting Date:
20-Feb-2012
Date of Publication:
20-Feb-2012
Other Identifiers:
5683
Sponsors:
Western Institute of Nursing

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.typeResearch Studyen_GB
dc.titleEffect of Exercise on Biobehavioral Outcomes of Fatigueen_GB
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10755/211662-
dc.description.abstractPurpose/Aim: To examine the effect of a supervised endurance exercise program on biobehavioral outcomes of fatigue in women undergoing chemotherapy for early stage breast cancer. Specific aim was to investigate the effect of exercise on cancer-related fatigue (CRF) as measured by the Piper Fatigue Scale (PFS), quality of life as measured by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B), aerobic fitness as measured by maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max ), and immune function (pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and cortisol levels). Background: CRF is a multifactorial, biobehavioral phenomenon caused by a multitude of biological and psychobehavioral mechanisms. Despite its prevalence and significance, CRF remains undermanaged. Although evidence suggests that exercise attenuates CRF, very little is known regarding the biological mechanisms through which exercise produces this favorable effect. Understanding these mechanisms will provide empirical support for the role of exercise and will help in designing more specific exercise protocols. Design and Methods: Fourteen women were randomly assigned to control (n=7) or exercise (n=7) groups. Exercise consisted of treadmill mobilization with individualized progressive workload performed for 30-40 minutes, 2-3 times a week for the duration of chemotherapy. Data was collected at 4 time points: baseline, half way through, upon completion, and 3-4 weeks following the completion of chemotherapy and the exercise program. Immune function was measured in plasma in a subset of participants (3 exercise and 3 control). All other outcome variables were measured in all participants. Results: Outcome variables (VO2max, CRF, and quality of life) were analyzed using RMANOVA to test the global hypothesis of no difference between groups over all time points. In the cases where such overall significant differences were found, pair-wise differences at all time points between the two groups were analyzed using appropriate contrasts combined with Bonferroni adjusted significance levels. There were no baseline group differences in any of the outcome variables. CRF increased in all participants as they progressed through chemotherapy. Although statistically not significant, the magnitude of the increase was lower in the exercisers compared to the controls. Exercisers had significantly (0.037) higher scores on the physical well-being subscale of FACT-B and significantly higher VO2max (p =0.04) compared to the controls. The small sample size precluded statistical analyses of the immune marker findings. However, percent change from pre chemotherapy to end of chemotherapy favored the exercise group in all of the measured immune markers. Implications:Findings suggest that engaging in a modest program of regular exercise benefits patients undergoing chemotherapy by maintaining their aerobic fitness and improving their physical and functional well-being. These significant results, in the face of the small sample size, provide evidence to support the effectiveness of the exercise program in improving the outcomes measured in this study. Findings support the need for a larger scale follow-up study.en_GB
dc.subjectBreast canceren_GB
dc.subjectChemotherapyen_GB
dc.subjectBiobehavioral outcomesen_GB
dc.subjectExerciseen_GB
dc.subjectFatigueen_GB
dc.date.available2012-02-20T12:07:02Z-
dc.date.issued2012-02-20T12:07:02Z-
dc.date.accessioned2012-02-20T12:07:02Z-
dc.description.sponsorshipWestern Institute of Nursingen_GB
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