The Historical Research of Legislative Process of the Eugenic Protection Act and Maternal and Child Health Administration in Japan

2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10755/335458
Category:
Full-text
Type:
Presentation
Title:
The Historical Research of Legislative Process of the Eugenic Protection Act and Maternal and Child Health Administration in Japan
Author(s):
Tanaka, Sachiko; Kawahara, Yukari; Yarimizo, Kazuko; Yumoto, Atsuko; Ogawa, Keiko
Lead Author STTI Affiliation:
Non-member
Author Details:
Sachiko Tanaka, RN, PhD, satanaka@jikei.ac.jp; Yukari Kawahara, PhD, RN; Kazuko Yarimizo, BS; Atsuko Yumoto, MA, CNM; Keiko Ogawa, MA, CNM
Abstract:
Session presented on Saturday, July 26, 2014: Purpose: Selections by individuals concerning pregnancy and childbirth fundamentally depend not only on the individual's will, but also on the country's paradigm and policy of the time. In Japan, after more than 60 years from the Second World War, the broadest ever range of selections has become available concerning pregnancy and childbirth, with the effect of developing medical science. It is considered essential to look back on Japan's historical systems related to pregnancy and childbirth, for the purpose of examining future maternal and child health administration and nursing. This study is aimed at clarifying the legislative process from the pre-war National Eugenic Act to the post-war Eugenic Protection Act, and to the present Maternal Protection Act in Japan. Methods: A historical study based on interviews and literature search was conducted. The study period extended from August 2012 to March 2013. Interviews with Japanese civil organizations concerning maternal and child health were conducted in a semi-structured manner, where questions were asked relating to maternal and child health conditions and challenges in each period, influence on administrative measures in terms of relationship with today's maternal and child health and hygiene. The responses were analyzed in time series, in combination with literature search results. The interviews were recorded with agreement of the respondents. The scope of literature search was set at materials concerning material and child health administration, and the search was conducted at the Library of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan Family Planning Association, and other institutions. Approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of the researcher's organization, and adequate considerations were taken for the protection of privacy and copyright. Results: The eugenic philosophy as the basis of Japan's National Eugenic Act was imported from Europe into Japan. 'An Essay on the Principle of Population', written by T. R. Malthus, was focused on population control measures, and affected the concepts of eugenics and birth control toward a 'better race'. Since 1900, eugenics was gradually linked to a desirable status of the country. Following the visit to Japan by M. Sanger, birth control activities also emerged in Japan. However, because the English term 'birth control' was translated into a Japanese phrase 'sanji seigen (birth limitation)', it was misunderstood as including abortion, in contrast to Sanger's true concept for birth control to 'protect mothers and children', which was not actually based on the population theory by Malthus. It is possible that Japanese people in those days incorrectly understood the birth control concept proposed by Sanger. As eugenics became increasingly closely tied to nationalism, the National Eugenic Act was enacted in 1940, aimed at improvement of the people's nature. Following Japan's defeat in war, there was a remarkable increase in artificial abortions, because substantial expansion of population was expected. This resulted in a rise in illegal abortions, causing concerns about possible injuries to mother's health. The Eugenic Protection Act was enforced in June 1948, with a very short time period from its promulgation, suggesting the seriousness of maternal and child health problems caused by illegal artificial abortions. In the midst of pros and cons, this act made possible artificial abortions for economic reasons in 1949, triggering intense arguments concerning abortions and birth control. The Maternal Protection Act was established in 1996, as new problems arose, such as post-divorce abortions, artificial abortions by teenagers, and multiple pregnancies. Concepts for abortions and birth control have become more and more complicated, as science and technology develop while no clear answer to human life has been identified in the historical acts. Conclusion: 1.'"An Essay on the Principle of Population', written by T. R. Malthus, was focused on population control measures, and affected the concepts of eugenics and birth control toward a 'better race'. 2. Sanger's true concept for birth control to 'protect mothers and children', which was not actually based on the population theory by Malthus. It is possible that Japanese people in those days incorrectly understood the birth control concept proposed by Sanger. 3. The Eugenic Protection Act was enforced in June 1948, with a very short time period. This act made possible artificial abortions for economic reasons in 1949 without protection of mother's health.
Keywords:
History; Maternal and Child Health; Law
Repository Posting Date:
17-Nov-2014
Date of Publication:
11 ; 11
Other Identifiers:
INRC14PST194
Conference Date:
2014
Conference Name:
25th International Nursing Research Congress
Conference Host:
Sigma Theta Tau International, the Honor Society of Nursing
Conference Location:
Hong Kong
Description:
International Nursing Research Congress, 2014 Theme: Engaging Colleagues: Improving Global Health Outcomes. Held at the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre, Wanchai, Hong Kong

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoen_USen_GB
dc.language.isoenen
dc.type.categoryFull-texten
dc.typePresentationen
dc.titleThe Historical Research of Legislative Process of the Eugenic Protection Act and Maternal and Child Health Administration in Japanen
dc.contributor.authorTanaka, Sachikoen
dc.contributor.authorKawahara, Yukarien
dc.contributor.authorYarimizo, Kazukoen
dc.contributor.authorYumoto, Atsukoen
dc.contributor.authorOgawa, Keikoen
dc.contributor.departmentNon-memberen
dc.author.detailsSachiko Tanaka, RN, PhD, satanaka@jikei.ac.jp; Yukari Kawahara, PhD, RN; Kazuko Yarimizo, BS; Atsuko Yumoto, MA, CNM; Keiko Ogawa, MA, CNMen
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10755/335458-
dc.description.abstractSession presented on Saturday, July 26, 2014: Purpose: Selections by individuals concerning pregnancy and childbirth fundamentally depend not only on the individual's will, but also on the country's paradigm and policy of the time. In Japan, after more than 60 years from the Second World War, the broadest ever range of selections has become available concerning pregnancy and childbirth, with the effect of developing medical science. It is considered essential to look back on Japan's historical systems related to pregnancy and childbirth, for the purpose of examining future maternal and child health administration and nursing. This study is aimed at clarifying the legislative process from the pre-war National Eugenic Act to the post-war Eugenic Protection Act, and to the present Maternal Protection Act in Japan. Methods: A historical study based on interviews and literature search was conducted. The study period extended from August 2012 to March 2013. Interviews with Japanese civil organizations concerning maternal and child health were conducted in a semi-structured manner, where questions were asked relating to maternal and child health conditions and challenges in each period, influence on administrative measures in terms of relationship with today's maternal and child health and hygiene. The responses were analyzed in time series, in combination with literature search results. The interviews were recorded with agreement of the respondents. The scope of literature search was set at materials concerning material and child health administration, and the search was conducted at the Library of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan Family Planning Association, and other institutions. Approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of the researcher's organization, and adequate considerations were taken for the protection of privacy and copyright. Results: The eugenic philosophy as the basis of Japan's National Eugenic Act was imported from Europe into Japan. 'An Essay on the Principle of Population', written by T. R. Malthus, was focused on population control measures, and affected the concepts of eugenics and birth control toward a 'better race'. Since 1900, eugenics was gradually linked to a desirable status of the country. Following the visit to Japan by M. Sanger, birth control activities also emerged in Japan. However, because the English term 'birth control' was translated into a Japanese phrase 'sanji seigen (birth limitation)', it was misunderstood as including abortion, in contrast to Sanger's true concept for birth control to 'protect mothers and children', which was not actually based on the population theory by Malthus. It is possible that Japanese people in those days incorrectly understood the birth control concept proposed by Sanger. As eugenics became increasingly closely tied to nationalism, the National Eugenic Act was enacted in 1940, aimed at improvement of the people's nature. Following Japan's defeat in war, there was a remarkable increase in artificial abortions, because substantial expansion of population was expected. This resulted in a rise in illegal abortions, causing concerns about possible injuries to mother's health. The Eugenic Protection Act was enforced in June 1948, with a very short time period from its promulgation, suggesting the seriousness of maternal and child health problems caused by illegal artificial abortions. In the midst of pros and cons, this act made possible artificial abortions for economic reasons in 1949, triggering intense arguments concerning abortions and birth control. The Maternal Protection Act was established in 1996, as new problems arose, such as post-divorce abortions, artificial abortions by teenagers, and multiple pregnancies. Concepts for abortions and birth control have become more and more complicated, as science and technology develop while no clear answer to human life has been identified in the historical acts. Conclusion: 1.'"An Essay on the Principle of Population', written by T. R. Malthus, was focused on population control measures, and affected the concepts of eugenics and birth control toward a 'better race'. 2. Sanger's true concept for birth control to 'protect mothers and children', which was not actually based on the population theory by Malthus. It is possible that Japanese people in those days incorrectly understood the birth control concept proposed by Sanger. 3. The Eugenic Protection Act was enforced in June 1948, with a very short time period. This act made possible artificial abortions for economic reasons in 1949 without protection of mother's health.en
dc.subjectHistoryen
dc.subjectMaternal and Child Healthen
dc.subjectLawen
dc.date.available2014-11-17T13:52:58Z-
dc.date.issued11/17/2014-
dc.date.issued11/17/2014en
dc.date.accessioned2014-11-17T13:52:58Z-
dc.conference.date2014en
dc.conference.name25th International Nursing Research Congressen
dc.conference.hostSigma Theta Tau International, the Honor Society of Nursingen
dc.conference.locationHong Kongen
dc.descriptionInternational Nursing Research Congress, 2014 Theme: Engaging Colleagues: Improving Global Health Outcomes. Held at the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre, Wanchai, Hong Kongen
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