Increasing Self-transcendence and Quality of Life Among Older Adults: A Pilot Study to Assess a Psychoeducational Intervention to Promote Self-transcendence

2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10755/344432
Category:
Abstract
Type:
Research Study
Level of Evidence:
Controlled Trial
Research Approach:
Pilot/Exploratory Study
Title:
Increasing Self-transcendence and Quality of Life Among Older Adults: A Pilot Study to Assess a Psychoeducational Intervention to Promote Self-transcendence
Author(s):
McCarthy, Valerie Lander; Bowland, Sharon; Ling, Jiying; Rudd-Sarfin, Kathryn; Connelly, Jennifer
Lead Author STTI Affiliation:
Iota Zeta
Author Details:
Valerie Lander McCarthy1, PhD, RN, Sharon Bowland2, PhD, LCSW, Jiying Ling3, MS, PhD, RN, Kathryn L. Rudd-Sarfin1, MSW, and Jennifer Connelly1, BSN, RN Affiliations: 1 University of Louisville, School of Nursing 2 Eastern Washington University 3 Michigan State University
Abstract:

Background

The late-life developmental process of self-transcendence shapes elders’ perspectives on self; others; the material world; and the spiritual. Self-transcendence and indicators of quality of life (QOL) are correlated but little evidence shows that levels of self-transcendence can be increased or have effects on QOL.

Purpose

This pilot study assessed the effects of a psychoeducational intervention on self-transcendence, life satisfaction, well-being, acceptance, coping, depression, and health-related QOL in community-dwelling older adults.

Specific aims were:

  1. Explore      the feasibility of conducting the intervention among older adults at a      senior center;
  2. Obtain      preliminary data on effects of the intervention;
  3. Obtain      effect sizes for future power analysis;
  4. Identify      participant insights to revise and strengthen the intervention in future;
  5. Further      develop the conceptual model of self-transcendence.

Methods

A mixed methods pilot study (N = 20) was conducted at a senior center among cognitively intact adults aged 60 or older who were randomly assigned to either an intervention or an alternate activity control group. Both groups met for eight weekly 1.5 hour sessions with individual practice of study activities at-home daily. The intervention, based on Reed’s (1987) Theory of Self-transcendence and a conceptual model of self-transcendence (McCarthy & Bockweg, 2012), included meditation, guided imagery, selected readings, journaling, focused group discussion, music, and creative activities. Quantitative data were collected using reliable and valid questionnaires and analyzed using generalized estimating equations (GEE). Qualitative data from process notes and a focus group was analyzed by a research consultant who attended weekly team meetings and who facilitated the focus group. The consultant used an a priori, content oriented theme to guide the analysis.

Results

Sample characteristics. Mean age of the sample was 70 years (SD = 8.50). The majority were female (n = 17, 90%), White (n = 16, 84%), and unmarried (n = 7, 37%). Only two (10.5%) participants perceived having inadequate family income and all but one (5%) participant had at least a high school diploma. Age was positively correlated with self-transcendence at Time 1 (r = .53, p = .02). There were no significant baseline differences between the two groups on demographic characteristics.

Quantitative effects of the intervention. For self-transcendence, the main effects of group (z= -.53, p = .596) and time (z= -.79, p = .431), and the interaction effect of group × time (z= .74, p = .462) were not significant. There was a significant group main effect (z = -2.2, p = .028), time main effect (z = -3.09, p = .002), and group × time interaction effect for life satisfaction (z= 2.89, p = .004). Life satisfaction decreased significantly in the control group (t7 = 2.69, p = .031), but there was an increasing, though non-significant, trend in the intervention group (t10= 2.69, p = .304).

Records of daily at-home practice. Daily at-home practice of various activities learned in the weekly group sessions was used to reinforce learning and boost the effects of group sessions. Participants were asked to practice for 15 minutes. Participants returned at least 6 of the 8 weekly reports showing practice at least 4 times a week, with several participants reporting they practiced multiple activities daily.

Qualitative effects of the intervention. In the focus group, all of the women stated that it was the process of sharing with each other that was the most powerful part of the group experience. Another woman said that she liked the accountability of coming back to share with others “what you did on your own.” Process notes and team meetings indicated that mindfulness practices and creative activities functioned indirectly by facilitating group bonding.

Discussion

Results of the study supported the underlying theory-based structure, methods, and content of the intervention. Based on insights gained from facilitators’ and participants’ experiences and perceptions the intervention was revised and strengthened. Despite the small sample and risk of contamination, this pilot study provides support for the hypothesis that a psychoeducational intervention may have a positive effect on self-transcendence and indicators of QOL. Further investigation is merited to assess the effectiveness of the intervention in a larger, more diverse sample. Bottom of Form

 

Keywords:
Self-transcendence; Late-life development; Well-being; Quality of life
Repository Posting Date:
12-Feb-2015
Date of Publication:
12-Feb-2015
Conference Date:
2014
Conference Name:
NGNA Annual Convention: NGNA on the Riverwalk: Spur Your Passion for the Older Adult.
Conference Host:
National Gerontological Nurses Association
Conference Location:
San Antonio, Texas.
Sponsors:
Sigma Theta Tau International; National Gerontological Nurses Association
Note:
The Sigma Theta Tau International grant application that funded this research, in whole or in part, was completed by the applicant and peer-reviewed prior to the award of the STTI grant. No further peer-review has taken place upon the completion of the STTI grant final report and its appearance in this repository.; This is an abstract-only submission. If the author has submitted a full-text item based on this abstract, you may find it by browsing the Virginia Henderson Global Nursing e-Repository by author. If author contact information is available in this abstract, please feel free to contact him or her with your queries regarding this submission. Alternatively, please contact the conference host, journal, or publisher (according to the circumstance) for further details regarding this item. If a citation is listed in this record, the item has been published and is available via open-access avenues or a journal/database subscription. Contact your library for assistance in obtaining the as-published article.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoen_USen
dc.type.categoryAbstracten
dc.typeResearch Studyen
dc.evidence.levelControlled Trialen
dc.research.approachPilot/Exploratory Studyen
dc.titleIncreasing Self-transcendence and Quality of Life Among Older Adults: A Pilot Study to Assess a Psychoeducational Intervention to Promote Self-transcendenceen_US
dc.contributor.authorMcCarthy, Valerie Lander-
dc.contributor.authorBowland, Sharon-
dc.contributor.authorLing, Jiying-
dc.contributor.authorRudd-Sarfin, Kathryn-
dc.contributor.authorConnelly, Jennifer-
dc.contributor.departmentIota Zetaen
dc.author.detailsValerie Lander McCarthy1, PhD, RN, Sharon Bowland2, PhD, LCSW, Jiying Ling3, MS, PhD, RN, Kathryn L. Rudd-Sarfin1, MSW, and Jennifer Connelly1, BSN, RN Affiliations: 1 University of Louisville, School of Nursing 2 Eastern Washington University 3 Michigan State Universityen_GB
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10755/344432-
dc.description.abstract<p><strong>Background</strong></p> <p>The late-life developmental process of self-transcendence shapes elders’ perspectives on self; others; the material world; and the spiritual. Self-transcendence and indicators of quality of life (QOL) are correlated but little evidence shows that levels of self-transcendence can be increased or have effects on QOL.</p> <p><strong>Purpose</strong></p> <p>This pilot study assessed the effects of a psychoeducational intervention on self-transcendence, life satisfaction, well-being, acceptance, coping, depression, and health-related QOL in community-dwelling older adults.</p> <p>Specific aims were:</p> <ol start="1"> <li>Explore      the feasibility of conducting the intervention among older adults at a      senior center;</li> <li>Obtain      preliminary data on effects of the intervention;</li> <li>Obtain      effect sizes for future power analysis;</li> <li>Identify      participant insights to revise and strengthen the intervention in future;</li> <li>Further      develop the conceptual model of self-transcendence.<strong></strong></li> </ol> <p><strong>Methods</strong></p> <p>A mixed methods pilot study (<em>N</em> = 20) was conducted at a senior center among cognitively intact adults aged 60 or older who were randomly assigned to either an intervention or an alternate activity control group. Both groups met for eight weekly 1.5 hour sessions with individual practice of study activities at-home daily. The intervention, based on Reed’s (1987) Theory of Self-transcendence and a conceptual model of self-transcendence (McCarthy & Bockweg, 2012), included meditation, guided imagery, selected readings, journaling, focused group discussion, music, and creative activities. Quantitative data were collected using reliable and valid questionnaires and analyzed using generalized estimating equations (GEE). Qualitative data from process notes and a focus group was analyzed by a research consultant who attended weekly team meetings and who facilitated the focus group. The consultant used an a priori, content oriented theme to guide the analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p><strong>Sample characteristics. </strong>Mean age of the sample was 70 years (<em>SD</em> = 8.50). The majority were female (<em>n</em> = 17, 90%), White (<em>n</em> = 16, 84%), and unmarried (<em>n</em> = 7, 37%). Only two (10.5%) participants perceived having inadequate family income and all but one (5%) participant had at least a high school diploma. Age was positively correlated with self-transcendence at Time 1 (<em>r</em> = .53, <em>p</em> = .02). There were no significant baseline differences between the two groups on demographic characteristics.</p> <p><strong>Quantitative effects of the intervention. </strong>For self-transcendence, the main effects of group (<em>z</em>= -.53, <em>p</em> = .596) and time (<em>z</em>= -.79, <em>p</em> = .431), and the interaction effect of group × time (<em>z</em>= .74, <em>p</em> = .462) were not significant. There was a significant group main effect (<em>z</em> = -2.2, <em>p</em> = .028), time main effect (<em>z</em> = -3.09, <em>p</em> = .002), and group × time interaction effect for life satisfaction (<em>z</em>= 2.89, <em>p</em> = .004). Life satisfaction decreased significantly in the control group (<em>t<sub>7</sub></em> = 2.69, <em>p</em> = .031), but there was an increasing, though non-significant, trend in the intervention group (<em>t<sub>10</sub></em>= 2.69, <em>p</em> = .304).</p> <p><strong><em>Records of daily at-home practice.</em></strong><strong> </strong>Daily at-home practice of various activities learned in the weekly group sessions was used to reinforce learning and boost the effects of group sessions. Participants were asked to practice for 15 minutes. Participants returned at least 6 of the 8 weekly reports showing practice at least 4 times a week, with several participants reporting they practiced multiple activities daily.</p> <p><strong>Qualitative effects of the intervention. </strong>In the focus group, all of the women stated that it was the process of sharing with each other that was the most powerful part of the group experience. Another woman said that she liked the accountability of coming back to share with others “what you did on your own.” Process notes and team meetings indicated that mindfulness practices and creative activities functioned indirectly by facilitating group bonding.</p> <p><strong>Discussion</strong></p> <p>Results of the study supported the underlying theory-based structure, methods, and content of the intervention. Based on insights gained from facilitators’ and participants’ experiences and perceptions the intervention was revised and strengthened. Despite the small sample and risk of contamination, this pilot study provides support for the hypothesis that a psychoeducational intervention may have a positive effect on self-transcendence and indicators of QOL. Further investigation is merited to assess the effectiveness of the intervention in a larger, more diverse sample. Bottom of Form</p> <p> </p>en_GB
dc.subjectSelf-transcendenceen_GB
dc.subjectLate-life developmenten_GB
dc.subjectWell-beingen_GB
dc.subjectQuality of lifeen_GB
dc.date.available2015-02-12T20:26:25Z-
dc.date.issued2015-02-12-
dc.date.accessioned2015-02-12T20:26:25Z-
dc.conference.date2014en
dc.conference.nameNGNA Annual Convention: NGNA on the Riverwalk: Spur Your Passion for the Older Adult.en_GB
dc.conference.hostNational Gerontological Nurses Associationen_GB
dc.conference.locationSan Antonio, Texas.en_GB
dc.description.sponsorshipSigma Theta Tau Internationalen_GB
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Gerontological Nurses Associationen_US
dc.description.noteThe Sigma Theta Tau International grant application that funded this research, in whole or in part, was completed by the applicant and peer-reviewed prior to the award of the STTI grant. No further peer-review has taken place upon the completion of the STTI grant final report and its appearance in this repository.en
dc.description.noteThis is an abstract-only submission. If the author has submitted a full-text item based on this abstract, you may find it by browsing the Virginia Henderson Global Nursing e-Repository by author. If author contact information is available in this abstract, please feel free to contact him or her with your queries regarding this submission. Alternatively, please contact the conference host, journal, or publisher (according to the circumstance) for further details regarding this item. If a citation is listed in this record, the item has been published and is available via open-access avenues or a journal/database subscription. Contact your library for assistance in obtaining the as-published article.-
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