Preventing Drug Abuse and Violence/Bullying in Urban and Rural Secondary Schools in Southern, Nigeria

2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10755/616179
Category:
Full-text
Type:
Poster
Title:
Preventing Drug Abuse and Violence/Bullying in Urban and Rural Secondary Schools in Southern, Nigeria
Author(s):
Samson-Akpan, P. E.; John, Mildred E.; Ogunjimi, Lucas Olusegun; Ajibola, Clement Abiodun
Lead Author STTI Affiliation:
Tau Lambda-at-Large
Author Details:
P. E. Samson-Akpan, RN/RM, RNE, FWACN, patedoho2005@yahoo.com; Mildred E. John, RN, RM, RNE, FWACN; Lucas Olusegun Ogunjimi, PGDipMgt; Clement Abiodun Ajibola, ISAK2
Abstract:
Session presented on Thursday, July 21, 2016 and Friday, July 22, 2016: Purpose: Drug abuse is a global issue and has serious public health implications (Adamu and Lawal, 2013). Globalization rides on the crest of technological and information revolution which has numerous advantages. This revolution also brings about some disadvantages especially in youths, who tend to watch films on crime and violence, with resultant violent behaviours like bullying and conflict. These violent behaviours are rampant in secondary schools and result in injuries and death. Violent behaviours can also be exhibited by the teachers which can be imitated by the students. Furthermore, it is a recognized fact that drug and alcohol abuse affect health, schooling and educational achievement of students such as lower grades, higher truancy and dropout rates, delayed or damaged physical, cognitive, and emotional development, violence and a variety of other damaging results (Atoyebi & Atoyebi, 2013). When these youths combine watching violence films and taking mood and behaviour altering substances, it is no wonder therefore to find increase in the rate of bullying and violence our secondary institutions. 'However, the World Health Organization posits that effective school health programme can be one of the most cost-effective investments a nation can make to concurrently improve education and health. In Nigeria, National Health Promotion and National School Health Policies were launched in 2006 but there is no study to assess health promotion activities related to prevention of drugs abuse and violence/bullying in secondary schools. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to ascertain and compare health promotion activities to prevent'drug abuse and'violence/bullying in urban and rural secondary schools in Cross-River State, Nigeria. Methods: The study utilized a descriptive design with multi-stage sampling technique to select a sample of 4 Local Government Areas from each Educational Zone, therefore, from the 3 Educational Zones of Cross River State which is in Southern Nigeria, 12 Local Government Areas were selected out of 18. Thereafter, 35 urban and 109 rural secondary schools located in these Local Government Areas were used for the study. One hundred and fifty-six teachers who taught Health and Physical Education were purposively selected. The instrument for data collection was a 20-items, self-developed, and validated questionnaire tagged ?Health Promotion Analysis Questionnaire.? It was developed based on Health Promotion Analysis Model (HELSAM) by World Health Organization (Taylor, Haglund & Tillgren, 2000). The instrument had an internal consistency of 0.77 and 0.79 (Cronbach coefficient) for drug abuse and violence; and a reliability correlation coefficient of .96 and .98 for drug abuse and violence respectively. The respondents completed copies of the questionnaire on behalf of their schools, and data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and independent t-test. Ethical approval was obtained from Cross River State Ministry of Health Research Ethics Committee. Results: The results revealed that majority of the respondents were female 103 (66%), mostly aged between 26 to 45 years and married 108 (68.8%). Eighty seven respondents (Physical and Health Education teachers) were in the 35 urban schools while 71 were found in the 109 rural secondary schools. The concentration of Physical and Health Education teachers in urban secondary schools enhanced health promotion activities in these urban schools than rural. Results also showed that all the schools did not have written policies or guidelines on prevention of violence and drug abuse 144(100%), and that majority of the urban and rural schools ?always? involved Parent Teachers? Association in addressing violence and in disciplining students who were violent. Discipline of students is not only the responsibility of the school; therefore, when parents are involved, it becomes more effective. Majority of the respondents 65.7% (urban) and 73.4% (rural) reported that the curriculum covered discipline.' Many respondents 17 (48.60%) in the urban schools compared with 63 (57.80%) of the rural schools ?never? reported cases of teachers? sexual misconduct to Ministry of Education or disciplined teachers who were violent 37.10% (urban) and 59.60%(rural). This revelation can breed student harassment and negative behavior from the students who are helpless.' Majority of the respondents in urban 27(77.1%) and rural 64(58.7%) schools ?always? enforce anti-smoking/anti-alcohol policy.' On having curriculum that covered health effects of substance abuse, majority of the respondents in urban and rural schools claimed that drug education was integral part of Health Education curriculum and schools? curricula covered health effects of substance abuse. Respondents, 74.3% (urban) and 44.1% (rural) affirmed that both character and learning are 'always' recognized and rewarded in students who excel in academics and behaved well. These health promotion activities help to improve self-esteem which impact on positive emotional health. The respondents 62.80% in urban schools claimed that teachers were being trained in conflict management whereas 47.25% of respondents in rural schools affirmed that teachers were not being trained on this particular act. Training of teachers in conflict management is important so as to be able to nip conflict in the bud. This helps to enhance atmosphere of tranquility between students and teachers and among students.' Further results also revealed that school location significantly influenced prevention of drug abuse and violence. This result is not surprising because of the concentration of Physical and Health Education Teachers (subject specialist) in urban schools. 'Conclusion: Location of schools can either enhance or hinder health promotion activities to prevent drug abuse and violence. Therefore, equity should be addressed in the provision of material and human resources for health promotion activities especially in rural secondary schools. The study also suggests the need to encourage schools to have written health promotion policy on prevention of drug abuse, violence and bullying in school. Furthermore, stakeholders in education should consider continuing education on training of teachers on conflict management.
Keywords:
School health promotion; Prevention of drug abuse; Prevention of violence/bullying
Repository Posting Date:
13-Jul-2016
Date of Publication:
13-Jul-2016 ; 13-Jul-2016
Other Identifiers:
INRC16PST77; INRC16PST77
Conference Date:
2016
Conference Name:
27th International Nursing Research Congress
Conference Host:
Sigma Theta Tau International, the Honor Society of Nursing
Conference Location:
Cape Town, South Africa
Description:
Theme: Leading Global Research: Advancing Practice, Advocacy, and Policy

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoenen
dc.type.categoryFull-texten
dc.typePosteren
dc.titlePreventing Drug Abuse and Violence/Bullying in Urban and Rural Secondary Schools in Southern, Nigeriaen
dc.contributor.authorSamson-Akpan, P. E.en
dc.contributor.authorJohn, Mildred E.en
dc.contributor.authorOgunjimi, Lucas Olusegunen
dc.contributor.authorAjibola, Clement Abiodunen
dc.contributor.departmentTau Lambda-at-Largeen
dc.author.detailsP. E. Samson-Akpan, RN/RM, RNE, FWACN, patedoho2005@yahoo.com; Mildred E. John, RN, RM, RNE, FWACN; Lucas Olusegun Ogunjimi, PGDipMgt; Clement Abiodun Ajibola, ISAK2en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10755/616179-
dc.description.abstractSession presented on Thursday, July 21, 2016 and Friday, July 22, 2016: Purpose: Drug abuse is a global issue and has serious public health implications (Adamu and Lawal, 2013). Globalization rides on the crest of technological and information revolution which has numerous advantages. This revolution also brings about some disadvantages especially in youths, who tend to watch films on crime and violence, with resultant violent behaviours like bullying and conflict. These violent behaviours are rampant in secondary schools and result in injuries and death. Violent behaviours can also be exhibited by the teachers which can be imitated by the students. Furthermore, it is a recognized fact that drug and alcohol abuse affect health, schooling and educational achievement of students such as lower grades, higher truancy and dropout rates, delayed or damaged physical, cognitive, and emotional development, violence and a variety of other damaging results (Atoyebi & Atoyebi, 2013). When these youths combine watching violence films and taking mood and behaviour altering substances, it is no wonder therefore to find increase in the rate of bullying and violence our secondary institutions. 'However, the World Health Organization posits that effective school health programme can be one of the most cost-effective investments a nation can make to concurrently improve education and health. In Nigeria, National Health Promotion and National School Health Policies were launched in 2006 but there is no study to assess health promotion activities related to prevention of drugs abuse and violence/bullying in secondary schools. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to ascertain and compare health promotion activities to prevent'drug abuse and'violence/bullying in urban and rural secondary schools in Cross-River State, Nigeria. Methods: The study utilized a descriptive design with multi-stage sampling technique to select a sample of 4 Local Government Areas from each Educational Zone, therefore, from the 3 Educational Zones of Cross River State which is in Southern Nigeria, 12 Local Government Areas were selected out of 18. Thereafter, 35 urban and 109 rural secondary schools located in these Local Government Areas were used for the study. One hundred and fifty-six teachers who taught Health and Physical Education were purposively selected. The instrument for data collection was a 20-items, self-developed, and validated questionnaire tagged ?Health Promotion Analysis Questionnaire.? It was developed based on Health Promotion Analysis Model (HELSAM) by World Health Organization (Taylor, Haglund & Tillgren, 2000). The instrument had an internal consistency of 0.77 and 0.79 (Cronbach coefficient) for drug abuse and violence; and a reliability correlation coefficient of .96 and .98 for drug abuse and violence respectively. The respondents completed copies of the questionnaire on behalf of their schools, and data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and independent t-test. Ethical approval was obtained from Cross River State Ministry of Health Research Ethics Committee. Results: The results revealed that majority of the respondents were female 103 (66%), mostly aged between 26 to 45 years and married 108 (68.8%). Eighty seven respondents (Physical and Health Education teachers) were in the 35 urban schools while 71 were found in the 109 rural secondary schools. The concentration of Physical and Health Education teachers in urban secondary schools enhanced health promotion activities in these urban schools than rural. Results also showed that all the schools did not have written policies or guidelines on prevention of violence and drug abuse 144(100%), and that majority of the urban and rural schools ?always? involved Parent Teachers? Association in addressing violence and in disciplining students who were violent. Discipline of students is not only the responsibility of the school; therefore, when parents are involved, it becomes more effective. Majority of the respondents 65.7% (urban) and 73.4% (rural) reported that the curriculum covered discipline.' Many respondents 17 (48.60%) in the urban schools compared with 63 (57.80%) of the rural schools ?never? reported cases of teachers? sexual misconduct to Ministry of Education or disciplined teachers who were violent 37.10% (urban) and 59.60%(rural). This revelation can breed student harassment and negative behavior from the students who are helpless.' Majority of the respondents in urban 27(77.1%) and rural 64(58.7%) schools ?always? enforce anti-smoking/anti-alcohol policy.' On having curriculum that covered health effects of substance abuse, majority of the respondents in urban and rural schools claimed that drug education was integral part of Health Education curriculum and schools? curricula covered health effects of substance abuse. Respondents, 74.3% (urban) and 44.1% (rural) affirmed that both character and learning are 'always' recognized and rewarded in students who excel in academics and behaved well. These health promotion activities help to improve self-esteem which impact on positive emotional health. The respondents 62.80% in urban schools claimed that teachers were being trained in conflict management whereas 47.25% of respondents in rural schools affirmed that teachers were not being trained on this particular act. Training of teachers in conflict management is important so as to be able to nip conflict in the bud. This helps to enhance atmosphere of tranquility between students and teachers and among students.' Further results also revealed that school location significantly influenced prevention of drug abuse and violence. This result is not surprising because of the concentration of Physical and Health Education Teachers (subject specialist) in urban schools. 'Conclusion: Location of schools can either enhance or hinder health promotion activities to prevent drug abuse and violence. Therefore, equity should be addressed in the provision of material and human resources for health promotion activities especially in rural secondary schools. The study also suggests the need to encourage schools to have written health promotion policy on prevention of drug abuse, violence and bullying in school. Furthermore, stakeholders in education should consider continuing education on training of teachers on conflict management.en
dc.subjectSchool health promotionen
dc.subjectPrevention of drug abuseen
dc.subjectPrevention of violence/bullyingen
dc.date.available2016-07-13T11:06:19Z-
dc.date.issued2016-07-13-
dc.date.issued2016-07-13en
dc.date.accessioned2016-07-13T11:06:19Z-
dc.conference.date2016en
dc.conference.name27th International Nursing Research Congressen
dc.conference.hostSigma Theta Tau International, the Honor Society of Nursingen
dc.conference.locationCape Town, South Africaen
dc.descriptionTheme: Leading Global Research: Advancing Practice, Advocacy, and Policyen
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