How One Organization Used Evidence to Address Lateral Violence Among Nurses

2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10755/621258
Category:
Full-text
Format:
Text-based Document
Type:
Presentation
Title:
How One Organization Used Evidence to Address Lateral Violence Among Nurses
Author(s):
Salter, Diane S.; Moore, Toye; Robinson, Angela; Stermer, Cynthia; Wisotzkey, Susanlee; Buchko, Barbara L.
Lead Author STTI Affiliation:
Eta Eta
Author Details:
Diane S. Salter, RN, CPAN, NE-BC; Toye Moore, RN; Angela Robinson, RN, CCRN, NE-BC; Cynthia Stermer, RN, RN-BC, ACNS-BC; Susanlee Wisotzkey, RN, NE-BC, HNB-BC, CCRN; Barbara L. Buchko, RNC-MNN
Abstract:
Session presented on Sunday, March 19, 2017: Bullying and lateral violence in nursing is a serious problem and damages the dignity of the individual and the profession. A common definition of bullying at work is 'repeated actions by one or more persons that are unwanted by the victim and cause humiliation, offense, and distress' (Sauer, 2012, p. 48). This form of incivility violates the professional expectation of mutual respect. These recurring behaviors, whether overt or covert, demean and demoralize a victim, which affects his or her ability to complete work tasks (Sauer, 2012). Bullying among healthcare workers is a threat to a culture of safety in the workplace (Lim & Bernstein, 2014). In addition to decreased job satisfaction and poor retention, unprofessional behaviors by nurses pose a threat to a healthy work environment and increases the chance of errors, delays in care, conflict, and can become the root cause of adverse events and poor patient outcomes (Longo & Hain, 2014). Bullying has become a major contributor to absenteeism, work dissatisfaction, decreased productivity, and work-related injuries, with an estimated cost of over $4 billion a year (Hubbard, 2014). Study findings support that bullying behaviors are precipitated by both individual and systemic factors. Organizations that have written policies in place stating that bullying behaviors are not tolerated must strictly enforce these policies and investigate all claims (Sauer, 2012). Nurses also need to be aware of their own behaviors in perpetuating lateral and vertical violence. Developing effective communication skills is instrumental in cultivating strong interpersonal relationships. Although the nurse leader is pivotal in ensuring respectful work places, there needs to be shared accountability among all nurses in caring for self and others by confronting those who exhibit toxic behaviors (Cervalo, Schwartz, Foltz-Ramos, & Caster, 2012). Research emphasizes the importance of both education and cognitive rehearsal in addressing bullying among nurses. Cognitive rehearsal consists of didactic instruction, identifying and rehearsing specific phrases related to bullying, and practicing the phrases to become skilled at using them (Griffin & Clark, 2014). The Joint Commission recommends: skill-based training and coaching; nonconfrontational surveillance; evaluation processes to determine staff perceptions of bullying behaviors; and organizational policies that are strictly enforced and allow nurses to report these behaviors without fear of retribution. Although elimination of bullying behaviors may be unrealistic, research suggests that recognition of bullying behaviors and the use of cognitive rehearsal can give nurses confidence in confronting those that exhibit these disruptive behaviors (Lee, Bernstein, & Nokes, 2014). In 2012, the evidence-based practice and nursing research (EBP/NR) council of a large community teaching hospital identified that some nursing units within the organization had RN-RN interaction scores from the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators (NDNQI) survey that were lower than the national benchmark. Council members considered that bullying or lateral violence could be a contributing factor. The council conducted an EBP project to identify the best strategies to prepare registered nurses (RNs) to recognize and respond to bullying to support the goal of improved RN-RN interaction. A comprehensive review of the literature was completed revealing best practice recommendations and the development of an action plan. Recommendations included: Performing an organizational assessment -- Clearly defining bullying and lateral violence (LV) behaviors -- Developing an awareness campaign -- Providing education to nurse leaders and nursing staff -- Using cognitive rehearsal in education -- Developing policies and procedures that clearly delineate expected behaviors and consequences of bullying -- The first step of the action plan was to conduct an organizational assessment to determine the extent and severity of lateral violence among nurses. Lateral and Vertical Violence in Nursing Survey was used to determine the prevalence of lateral and vertical violence among RNs (Stanley, 2011). The survey was emailed to 1,425 RNs with a 34% return rate. The results of the study were as follows: 77% observed lateral violence -- 52% observed vertical violence (downward) -- 55% observed vertical violence (upward) -- 51% reported being a recipient of lateral violence -- 45% reported being a victim of verbal violence -- 23% reported being a victim of non-verbal violence -- The current practice to address bullying behavior was found in the employee code of conduct and in clinical evaluations under 'teamwork.' Consequences for bullying were not consistent among nursing leadership, and there were no policies addressing bullying among nurses. As a result of these findings a task force was created to develop and implement a strategic plan to reduce bullying behaviors among RNs. The plan would incorporate strategies from the evidence and extend over a three year period. The plan was presented to nursing leadership and adopted for the entire nursing department. Year one (2014) included an awareness campaign and development of a position statement. Year two (2015) encompassed implementation of a compact and education plan. Education also included review of the just culture model for nurse leaders in dealing with incidences of bullying. Accountability was measured using the results of the 2016 employee engagement survey instead of the NDNQI since the organization chose to use a new survey tool recommended by the Advisory Board. The first part of the education plan was to conduct a workshop to educate charge nurses and provide them with the tools they needed to address bullying among nurses. Charge nurses were the main focus of the education plan because more than half of the examples of vertical violence identified the issue as charge nurse to staff. The title of the workshop was 'Working in the Salad Bowl.' The workshop was 1.5 hours in length and included both didactic instruction and cognitive rehearsal. The information included: the definition of lateral and vertical violence; impact of bullying on patients and staff; characteristics of bullies; self-awareness; personal and professional boundaries; expectations on professionalism; ways to resolve conflict; and tips on breaking the bullying cycle (Leekley & Turnure, 2012). Cognitive rehearsal consisted of three real-life scenarios. At the completion of class, the charge nurses were expected to demonstrate the ability to recognize, respond, and de-escalate episodes of bullying. More than 300 charge nurses have completed the training, and the information has been incorporated into the charge nurse and preceptor classes. The 2016 employee engagement scores showed improvement in two categories related to the topic of bullying. Nurses' scores in the category, 'abusive behavior is not tolerated by my organization,' increased from 55.3% to 58.5% (benchmark 77.9%). In the category, 'I have good personal relationships with coworkers in my unit/department,' there was an increase from 78.8% to 82.6% (benchmark 85.9%). In one nursing unit, the nurse leader used a focused approach on bullying education. The nurse manager required all staff members (regardless of role) to attend the workshop.A compact on expectations was signed by each staff member. Each month an article on bullying is assigned and is a topic of discussion at staff meetings. Staff are coached and encouraged to address episodes of bullying. Nurse leaders on this unit hold staff to high standards of peer-to-peer accountability, and take action when bullying is reported. The employee engagement scores in this unit showed significant improvement. In the category 'abusive behavior is not tolerated by my organization,' scores increased from 60% to 96%. 'I have good personal relationships with coworkers in my unit/department,' improved from 76% to 100%. Education and cognitive rehearsal are evidence-based strategies that are effective in addressing those behaviors that are detrimental to the physical and psychological well-being of nurses and the patients they serve (Griffin & Clark, 2014). Through a focused approach, which includes education, cognitive rehearsal, and shared accountability, significant improvements can be made in reducing bullying among nurses. For these strategies to be successful in the future throughout all of nursing, RNs must role model behaviors that contribute to outstanding patient care, competent and compassionate staff, and healthy and healing interpersonal relationships. Creating a healthy work environment, where patients and nurses thrive will foster a culture of accountability and elevate our professional nursing practice. Learning Objectives: Each participant will be able to define bullying and lateral/vertical violence and its effects on patient and nurse safety. Each participant will be able to discuss the research findings linked to prevention of bullying and lateral/vertical violence. Each participant will be able to discuss how an organization can utilize education and cognitive rehearsal in addressing bullying and lateral/vertical violence.
Keywords:
bullying; lateral violence; healthy work environment
Repository Posting Date:
3-Mar-2017
Date of Publication:
3-Mar-2017
Other Identifiers:
CHWE17J03
Conference Date:
2017
Conference Name:
Creating Healthy Work Environments 2017
Conference Host:
Sigma Theta Tau International, the Honor Society of Nursing
Conference Location:
Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
Description:
Creating Healthy Work Environments 2017: Best Practices in Clinical and Academic Settings. Held at the JW Marriott, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoen[US]en
dc.type.categoryFull-texten
dc.formatText-based Documenten
dc.typePresentationen
dc.titleHow One Organization Used Evidence to Address Lateral Violence Among Nursesen
dc.contributor.authorSalter, Diane S.en
dc.contributor.authorMoore, Toyeen
dc.contributor.authorRobinson, Angelaen
dc.contributor.authorStermer, Cynthiaen
dc.contributor.authorWisotzkey, Susanleeen
dc.contributor.authorBuchko, Barbara L.en
dc.contributor.departmentEta Etaen
dc.author.detailsDiane S. Salter, RN, CPAN, NE-BC; Toye Moore, RN; Angela Robinson, RN, CCRN, NE-BC; Cynthia Stermer, RN, RN-BC, ACNS-BC; Susanlee Wisotzkey, RN, NE-BC, HNB-BC, CCRN; Barbara L. Buchko, RNC-MNNen
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10755/621258-
dc.description.abstractSession presented on Sunday, March 19, 2017: Bullying and lateral violence in nursing is a serious problem and damages the dignity of the individual and the profession. A common definition of bullying at work is 'repeated actions by one or more persons that are unwanted by the victim and cause humiliation, offense, and distress' (Sauer, 2012, p. 48). This form of incivility violates the professional expectation of mutual respect. These recurring behaviors, whether overt or covert, demean and demoralize a victim, which affects his or her ability to complete work tasks (Sauer, 2012). Bullying among healthcare workers is a threat to a culture of safety in the workplace (Lim & Bernstein, 2014). In addition to decreased job satisfaction and poor retention, unprofessional behaviors by nurses pose a threat to a healthy work environment and increases the chance of errors, delays in care, conflict, and can become the root cause of adverse events and poor patient outcomes (Longo & Hain, 2014). Bullying has become a major contributor to absenteeism, work dissatisfaction, decreased productivity, and work-related injuries, with an estimated cost of over $4 billion a year (Hubbard, 2014). Study findings support that bullying behaviors are precipitated by both individual and systemic factors. Organizations that have written policies in place stating that bullying behaviors are not tolerated must strictly enforce these policies and investigate all claims (Sauer, 2012). Nurses also need to be aware of their own behaviors in perpetuating lateral and vertical violence. Developing effective communication skills is instrumental in cultivating strong interpersonal relationships. Although the nurse leader is pivotal in ensuring respectful work places, there needs to be shared accountability among all nurses in caring for self and others by confronting those who exhibit toxic behaviors (Cervalo, Schwartz, Foltz-Ramos, & Caster, 2012). Research emphasizes the importance of both education and cognitive rehearsal in addressing bullying among nurses. Cognitive rehearsal consists of didactic instruction, identifying and rehearsing specific phrases related to bullying, and practicing the phrases to become skilled at using them (Griffin & Clark, 2014). The Joint Commission recommends: skill-based training and coaching; nonconfrontational surveillance; evaluation processes to determine staff perceptions of bullying behaviors; and organizational policies that are strictly enforced and allow nurses to report these behaviors without fear of retribution. Although elimination of bullying behaviors may be unrealistic, research suggests that recognition of bullying behaviors and the use of cognitive rehearsal can give nurses confidence in confronting those that exhibit these disruptive behaviors (Lee, Bernstein, & Nokes, 2014). In 2012, the evidence-based practice and nursing research (EBP/NR) council of a large community teaching hospital identified that some nursing units within the organization had RN-RN interaction scores from the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators (NDNQI) survey that were lower than the national benchmark. Council members considered that bullying or lateral violence could be a contributing factor. The council conducted an EBP project to identify the best strategies to prepare registered nurses (RNs) to recognize and respond to bullying to support the goal of improved RN-RN interaction. A comprehensive review of the literature was completed revealing best practice recommendations and the development of an action plan. Recommendations included: Performing an organizational assessment -- Clearly defining bullying and lateral violence (LV) behaviors -- Developing an awareness campaign -- Providing education to nurse leaders and nursing staff -- Using cognitive rehearsal in education -- Developing policies and procedures that clearly delineate expected behaviors and consequences of bullying -- The first step of the action plan was to conduct an organizational assessment to determine the extent and severity of lateral violence among nurses. Lateral and Vertical Violence in Nursing Survey was used to determine the prevalence of lateral and vertical violence among RNs (Stanley, 2011). The survey was emailed to 1,425 RNs with a 34% return rate. The results of the study were as follows: 77% observed lateral violence -- 52% observed vertical violence (downward) -- 55% observed vertical violence (upward) -- 51% reported being a recipient of lateral violence -- 45% reported being a victim of verbal violence -- 23% reported being a victim of non-verbal violence -- The current practice to address bullying behavior was found in the employee code of conduct and in clinical evaluations under 'teamwork.' Consequences for bullying were not consistent among nursing leadership, and there were no policies addressing bullying among nurses. As a result of these findings a task force was created to develop and implement a strategic plan to reduce bullying behaviors among RNs. The plan would incorporate strategies from the evidence and extend over a three year period. The plan was presented to nursing leadership and adopted for the entire nursing department. Year one (2014) included an awareness campaign and development of a position statement. Year two (2015) encompassed implementation of a compact and education plan. Education also included review of the just culture model for nurse leaders in dealing with incidences of bullying. Accountability was measured using the results of the 2016 employee engagement survey instead of the NDNQI since the organization chose to use a new survey tool recommended by the Advisory Board. The first part of the education plan was to conduct a workshop to educate charge nurses and provide them with the tools they needed to address bullying among nurses. Charge nurses were the main focus of the education plan because more than half of the examples of vertical violence identified the issue as charge nurse to staff. The title of the workshop was 'Working in the Salad Bowl.' The workshop was 1.5 hours in length and included both didactic instruction and cognitive rehearsal. The information included: the definition of lateral and vertical violence; impact of bullying on patients and staff; characteristics of bullies; self-awareness; personal and professional boundaries; expectations on professionalism; ways to resolve conflict; and tips on breaking the bullying cycle (Leekley & Turnure, 2012). Cognitive rehearsal consisted of three real-life scenarios. At the completion of class, the charge nurses were expected to demonstrate the ability to recognize, respond, and de-escalate episodes of bullying. More than 300 charge nurses have completed the training, and the information has been incorporated into the charge nurse and preceptor classes. The 2016 employee engagement scores showed improvement in two categories related to the topic of bullying. Nurses' scores in the category, 'abusive behavior is not tolerated by my organization,' increased from 55.3% to 58.5% (benchmark 77.9%). In the category, 'I have good personal relationships with coworkers in my unit/department,' there was an increase from 78.8% to 82.6% (benchmark 85.9%). In one nursing unit, the nurse leader used a focused approach on bullying education. The nurse manager required all staff members (regardless of role) to attend the workshop.A compact on expectations was signed by each staff member. Each month an article on bullying is assigned and is a topic of discussion at staff meetings. Staff are coached and encouraged to address episodes of bullying. Nurse leaders on this unit hold staff to high standards of peer-to-peer accountability, and take action when bullying is reported. The employee engagement scores in this unit showed significant improvement. In the category 'abusive behavior is not tolerated by my organization,' scores increased from 60% to 96%. 'I have good personal relationships with coworkers in my unit/department,' improved from 76% to 100%. Education and cognitive rehearsal are evidence-based strategies that are effective in addressing those behaviors that are detrimental to the physical and psychological well-being of nurses and the patients they serve (Griffin & Clark, 2014). Through a focused approach, which includes education, cognitive rehearsal, and shared accountability, significant improvements can be made in reducing bullying among nurses. For these strategies to be successful in the future throughout all of nursing, RNs must role model behaviors that contribute to outstanding patient care, competent and compassionate staff, and healthy and healing interpersonal relationships. Creating a healthy work environment, where patients and nurses thrive will foster a culture of accountability and elevate our professional nursing practice. Learning Objectives: Each participant will be able to define bullying and lateral/vertical violence and its effects on patient and nurse safety. Each participant will be able to discuss the research findings linked to prevention of bullying and lateral/vertical violence. Each participant will be able to discuss how an organization can utilize education and cognitive rehearsal in addressing bullying and lateral/vertical violence.en
dc.subjectbullyingen
dc.subjectlateral violenceen
dc.subjecthealthy work environmenten
dc.date.available2017-03-03T14:34:49Z-
dc.date.issued2017-03-03-
dc.date.accessioned2017-03-03T14:34:49Z-
dc.conference.date2017en
dc.conference.nameCreating Healthy Work Environments 2017en
dc.conference.hostSigma Theta Tau International, the Honor Society of Nursingen
dc.conference.locationIndianapolis, Indiana, USAen
dc.descriptionCreating Healthy Work Environments 2017: Best Practices in Clinical and Academic Settings. Held at the JW Marriott, Indianapolis, Indiana, USAen
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