Reexamining age, race, site, and thermometer type as variables affecting temperature measurement in adults – A comparison study

2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10755/621459
Category:
Full-text
Format:
Text-based Document
Type:
Article
Level of Evidence:
Case Study
Research Approach:
Quantitative Research
Title:
Reexamining age, race, site, and thermometer type as variables affecting temperature measurement in adults – A comparison study
Author(s):
Smith, Linda S.
Lead Author STTI Affiliation:
Non-member
Abstract:

Background: As a result of the recent international vigilance regarding disease assessment, accurate measurement of body temperature has become increasingly important. Yet, trusted low-tech, portable mercury glass thermometers are no longer available. Thus, comparing accuracy of mercury-free thermometers with mercury devices is essential. Study purposes were 1) to examine age, race, site as variables affecting temperature measurement in adults, and 2) to compare clinical accuracy of low-tech Galinstan-in-glass device to mercury-in-glass at oral, axillary, groin, and rectal sites in adults.

Methods:

  • Setting: 176 bed accredited healthcare facility, rural northwest US.
  • Participants: Convenience sample (N = 120) of hospitalized persons ≥ 18 years old.
  • Instruments: Temperatures (°F) measured at oral, skin (simultaneous), immediately followed by rectal sites with four each mercury-glass (BD) and Galinstan-glass (Geratherm) thermometers; 10 minute dwell times.

Results: Participants averaged 61.6 years (SD 17.9), 188 pounds (SD 55.3); 61% female; race: 85% White, 8.3% Native Am., 4.2% Hispanic, 1.7 % Asian, 0.8% Black. For both mercury and Galinstan-glass thermometers, within-subject temperature readings were highest rectally; followed by oral, then skin sites. Galinstan assessments demonstrated rectal sites 0.91°F > oral and  1.3°F > skin sites. Devices strongly correlated between and across sites. Site difference scores between devices showed greatest variability at skin sites; least at rectal site. 95% confidence intervals of difference scores by site (°F): oral (0.142 – 0.265), axilla (0.167 – 0.339), groin (0.037 – 0.321), and rectal (-0.111 – 0.111). Race correlated with age, temperature readings each site and device.

Conclusion: Temperature readings varied by age, race. Mercury readings correlated with Galinstan thermometer readings at all sites. Site mean differences between devices were considered clinically insignificant. Still considered the gold standard, mercury-glass thermometers may no longer be available worldwide. Therefore, mercury-free, environmentally safe low-tech Galinstan-in-glass may be an appropriate replacement. This is especially important as we face new, internationally transmitted diseases.

Keywords:
Body Temperature; Thermometers
CINAHL Headings:
Body Temperature Determination; Body Temperature Determination--Evaluation; Body Temperature Determination--Methods; Body Temperature Determination--Methods--In Adulthood; Thermometers
Repository Posting Date:
7-Jun-2017
Date of Publication:
15-Jun-2003
Version of Published Work:
Publisher's version
Citation:
Smith, L. S. (2003). Reexamining age, race, site, and thermometer type as variables affecting temperature measurement in adults – A comparison study. BMC Nursing 2 (1). DOI: 10.1186/1472-6955-2-1. Retrieved from http://www.nursinglibrary.org/vhl/handle/10755/621459
Publisher:
BioMed Central Ltd.
Sponsors:
Geratherm Medical Diagnostic Systems and RG Medical Diagnostics
Description:
Thermometer devices and sheaths were donated by BD (mercury-in-glass) and RG Medical Diagnostics (Galinstan-in-glass). Funding for this investigation was received by the Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) from two supporting sponsors: Geratherm Medical Diagnostic Systems and RG Medical Diagnostics. Funding requests were initiated by OHSU staff. Grant sources of the study had no role in study design, data collection, data analysis/interpretation, or report writing.The principal investigator (manuscript author) formulated and implemented all aspects of this study and report.
Note:
This item appears in the Virginia Henderson Global Nursing e-Repository by way of the author’s decision to publish with BMC Nursing, an open access journal, under a Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0. The license allows users to freely share and adapt the author’s material for any purpose, even commercially. Please refer to the attached license (the icon at the bottom of this entry) for further information and terms. All terms of the license have been followed. There are no changes in this article from the original posting. Neither STTI nor the Henderson Repository has any affiliation with BMC Nursing. Each shares only a mutual desire to distribute nursing research in an open access venue.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoen_USen
dc.type.categoryFull-texten
dc.formatText-based Documenten
dc.typeArticleen
dc.evidence.levelCase Studyen
dc.research.approachQuantitative Researchen
dc.titleReexamining age, race, site, and thermometer type as variables affecting temperature measurement in adults – A comparison studyen_US
dc.contributor.authorSmith, Linda S.en
dc.contributor.departmentNon-memberen
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10755/621459-
dc.description.abstract<p>Background: As a result of the recent international vigilance regarding disease assessment, accurate measurement of body temperature has become increasingly important. Yet, trusted low-tech, portable mercury glass thermometers are no longer available. Thus, comparing accuracy of mercury-free thermometers with mercury devices is essential. Study purposes were 1) to examine age, race, site as variables affecting temperature measurement in adults, and 2) to compare clinical accuracy of low-tech Galinstan-in-glass device to mercury-in-glass at oral, axillary, groin, and rectal sites in adults.</p> <p>Methods: <ul> <li>Setting: 176 bed accredited healthcare facility, rural northwest US.</li> <li>Participants: Convenience sample (N = 120) of hospitalized persons ≥ 18 years old.</li> <li>Instruments: Temperatures (°F) measured at oral, skin (simultaneous), immediately followed by rectal sites with four each mercury-glass (BD) and Galinstan-glass (Geratherm) thermometers; 10 minute dwell times.</li> </ul></p> <p>Results: Participants averaged 61.6 years (SD 17.9), 188 pounds (SD 55.3); 61% female; race: 85% White, 8.3% Native Am., 4.2% Hispanic, 1.7 % Asian, 0.8% Black. For both mercury and Galinstan-glass thermometers, within-subject temperature readings were highest rectally; followed by oral, then skin sites. Galinstan assessments demonstrated rectal sites 0.91°F > oral and <span class="stix">≅</span> 1.3°F > skin sites. Devices strongly correlated between and across sites. Site difference scores between devices showed greatest variability at skin sites; least at rectal site. 95% confidence intervals of difference scores by site (°F): oral (0.142 – 0.265), axilla (0.167 – 0.339), groin (0.037 – 0.321), and rectal (-0.111 – 0.111). Race correlated with age, temperature readings each site and device.</p> <p>Conclusion: Temperature readings varied by age, race. Mercury readings correlated with Galinstan thermometer readings at all sites. Site mean differences between devices were considered clinically insignificant. Still considered the gold standard, mercury-glass thermometers may no longer be available worldwide. Therefore, mercury-free, environmentally safe low-tech Galinstan-in-glass may be an appropriate replacement. This is especially important as we face new, internationally transmitted diseases.</p>en
dc.subjectBody Temperatureen
dc.subjectThermometersen
dc.subject.cinahlBody Temperature Determinationen
dc.subject.cinahlBody Temperature Determination--Evaluationen
dc.subject.cinahlBody Temperature Determination--Methodsen
dc.subject.cinahlBody Temperature Determination--Methods--In Adulthooden
dc.subject.cinahlThermometersen
dc.date.available2017-06-07T20:31:37Z-
dc.date.issued2003-06-15-
dc.date.accessioned2017-06-07T20:31:37Z-
dc.type.versionPublisher's versionen
dc.identifier.citationSmith, L. S. (2003). Reexamining age, race, site, and thermometer type as variables affecting temperature measurement in adults – A comparison study. BMC Nursing 2 (1). DOI: 10.1186/1472-6955-2-1. Retrieved from http://www.nursinglibrary.org/vhl/handle/10755/621459en
dc.publisherBioMed Central Ltd.en
dc.identifier.issn1472-6955-
dc.identifier.issnBMC Nursing-
dc.identifier.doi10.1186/1472-6955-2-1-
dc.description.sponsorshipGeratherm Medical Diagnostic Systems and RG Medical Diagnosticsen
dc.identifier.citationSmith, L. S. (2003). Reexamining age, race, site, and thermometer type as variables affecting temperature measurement in adults – A comparison study. BMC Nursing 2 (1). DOI: 10.1186/1472-6955-2-1. Retrieved from http://www.nursinglibrary.org/vhl/handle/10755/621459en
dc.descriptionThermometer devices and sheaths were donated by BD (mercury-in-glass) and RG Medical Diagnostics (Galinstan-in-glass). Funding for this investigation was received by the Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) from two supporting sponsors: Geratherm Medical Diagnostic Systems and RG Medical Diagnostics. Funding requests were initiated by OHSU staff. Grant sources of the study had no role in study design, data collection, data analysis/interpretation, or report writing.The principal investigator (manuscript author) formulated and implemented all aspects of this study and report.en
dc.description.noteThis item appears in the Virginia Henderson Global Nursing e-Repository by way of the author’s decision to publish with BMC Nursing, an open access journal, under a Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0. The license allows users to freely share and adapt the author’s material for any purpose, even commercially. Please refer to the attached license (the icon at the bottom of this entry) for further information and terms. All terms of the license have been followed. There are no changes in this article from the original posting. Neither STTI nor the Henderson Repository has any affiliation with BMC Nursing. Each shares only a mutual desire to distribute nursing research in an open access venue.-
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