Physical restraint use among nursing home residents: A comparison of two data collection methods

2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10755/621466
Category:
Full-text
Format:
Text-based Document
Type:
Article
Level of Evidence:
N/A
Research Approach:
N/A
Title:
Physical restraint use among nursing home residents: A comparison of two data collection methods
Author(s):
Laurin, Danielle; Voyer, Philippe; Verreault, René; Durand, Pierre J
Lead Author STTI Affiliation:
Non-member
Abstract:

Background

In view of the issues surrounding physical restraint use, it is important to have a method of measurement as valid and reliable as possible. We determined the sensitivity and specificity of physical restraint use a) reported by nursing staff and b) reviewed from medical and nursing records in nursing home settings, by comparing these methods with direct observation.

Methods

We sampled eight care units in skilled nursing homes, seven care units in nursing homes and one long-term care unit in a hospital, from eight facilities which included 28 nurses and 377 residents. Physical restraint use was assessed the day following three periods of direct observation by two different means: interview with one or several members of the regular nursing staff, and review of medical and nursing records. Sensitivity and specificity values were calculated according to 2-by-2 contingency tables. Differences between the methods were assessed using the phi coefficient. Other information collected included: demographic characteristics, disruptive behaviors, body alignment problems, cognitive and functional skills.

Results

Compared to direct observation (gold standard), reported restraint use by nursing staff yielded a sensitivity of 87.4% at a specificity of 93.7% (phi = 0.84). When data was reviewed from subjects' medical and nursing records, sensitivity was reduced to 74.8%, and specificity to 86.3% (phi = 0.54). Justifications for restraint use including risk for falls, agitation, body alignment problems and aggressiveness were associated with the use of physical restraints.

Conclusions

The interview of nursing staff and the review of medical and nursing records are both valid and reliable techniques for measuring physical restraint use among nursing home residents. Higher sensitivity and specificity values were achieved when nursing staff was interviewed as compared to reviewing medical records. This study suggests that the interview of nursing staff is a more reliable method of data collection.

Keywords:
physical restraints; nursing home patients
CINAHL Headings:
Nursing Home Patients; Restraint, Physical--Utilization--In Old Age; Restraint, Physical--Utilization; Restraint, Physical
Repository Posting Date:
8-Jun-2017
Date of Publication:
15-Oct-2004
Version of Published Work:
Publisher's version
Citation:
Laurin, D., Voyer, P., Verreault, R., & Durand, P. J. (2004). Physical restraint use among nursing home residents: A comparison of two data collection methods. BMC Nursing 3 (1). DOI: 10.1186/1472-6955-3-5. Retrieved from http://www.nursinglibrary.org/vhl/handle/10755/621466
Publisher:
BioMed Central Ltd.
Description:
DL participated in the second line of statistical analyses, and drafted the manuscript. PV drafted parts of the document and contributed to the editing. RV contributed to the editing of the manuscript. PJD served as the Principal Investigator, designed the study, participated and oversaw field activity, revised and edited the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. We are grateful to Diane Richard, RN, for expert advice and assistance during data collection. We also recognize the work of Josée Bourdages, PhD, for assistance during data collection, and of Claude Lapointe, MSc, and Zohra Benounissa, MScA, for statistical assistance.
Note:
This item appears in the Virginia Henderson Global Nursing e-Repository by way of the author’s decision to publish with BMC Nursing, an open access journal, under a Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0. The license allows users to freely share and adapt the author’s material for any purpose, even commercially. Please refer to the attached license (the icon at the bottom of this entry) for further information and terms. All terms of the license have been followed. There are no changes in this article from the original posting. Neither STTI nor the Henderson Repository has any affiliation with BMC Nursing. Each shares only a mutual desire to distribute nursing research in an open access venue.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoen_USen
dc.type.categoryFull-texten
dc.formatText-based Documenten
dc.typeArticleen
dc.evidence.levelN/Aen
dc.research.approachN/Aen
dc.titlePhysical restraint use among nursing home residents: A comparison of two data collection methodsen_US
dc.contributor.authorLaurin, Danielleen
dc.contributor.authorVoyer, Philippeen
dc.contributor.authorVerreault, Renéen
dc.contributor.authorDurand, Pierre Jen
dc.contributor.departmentNon-memberen
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10755/621466-
dc.description.abstract<div id="ASec1" class="AbstractSection"> <h3 class="Heading">Background</h3> <p class="Para">In view of the issues surrounding physical restraint use, it is important to have a method of measurement as valid and reliable as possible. We determined the sensitivity and specificity of physical restraint use a) reported by nursing staff and b) reviewed from medical and nursing records in nursing home settings, by comparing these methods with direct observation.</p> </div> <div id="ASec2" class="AbstractSection"> <h3 class="Heading">Methods</h3> <p class="Para">We sampled eight care units in skilled nursing homes, seven care units in nursing homes and one long-term care unit in a hospital, from eight facilities which included 28 nurses and 377 residents. Physical restraint use was assessed the day following three periods of direct observation by two different means: interview with one or several members of the regular nursing staff, and review of medical and nursing records. Sensitivity and specificity values were calculated according to 2-by-2 contingency tables. Differences between the methods were assessed using the phi coefficient. Other information collected included: demographic characteristics, disruptive behaviors, body alignment problems, cognitive and functional skills.</p> </div> <div id="ASec3" class="AbstractSection"> <h3 class="Heading">Results</h3> <p class="Para">Compared to direct observation (gold standard), reported restraint use by nursing staff yielded a sensitivity of 87.4% at a specificity of 93.7% (phi = 0.84). When data was reviewed from subjects' medical and nursing records, sensitivity was reduced to 74.8%, and specificity to 86.3% (phi = 0.54). Justifications for restraint use including risk for falls, agitation, body alignment problems and aggressiveness were associated with the use of physical restraints.</p> </div> <div id="ASec4" class="AbstractSection"> <h3 class="Heading">Conclusions</h3> <p class="Para">The interview of nursing staff and the review of medical and nursing records are both valid and reliable techniques for measuring physical restraint use among nursing home residents. Higher sensitivity and specificity values were achieved when nursing staff was interviewed as compared to reviewing medical records. This study suggests that the interview of nursing staff is a more reliable method of data collection.</p> </div>en
dc.subjectphysical restraintsen
dc.subjectnursing home patientsen
dc.subject.cinahlNursing Home Patientsen
dc.subject.cinahlRestraint, Physical--Utilization--In Old Ageen
dc.subject.cinahlRestraint, Physical--Utilizationen
dc.subject.cinahlRestraint, Physicalen
dc.date.available2017-06-08T18:43:23Z-
dc.date.issued2004-10-15-
dc.date.accessioned2017-06-08T18:43:23Z-
dc.type.versionPublisher's versionen
dc.identifier.citationLaurin, D., Voyer, P., Verreault, R., & Durand, P. J. (2004). Physical restraint use among nursing home residents: A comparison of two data collection methods. BMC Nursing 3 (1). DOI: 10.1186/1472-6955-3-5. Retrieved from http://www.nursinglibrary.org/vhl/handle/10755/621466en
dc.publisherBioMed Central Ltd.en
dc.identifier.issn1472-6955-
dc.identifier.issnBMC Nursing-
dc.identifier.doi10.1186/1472-6955-3-5-
dc.identifier.citationLaurin, D., Voyer, P., Verreault, R., & Durand, P. J. (2004). Physical restraint use among nursing home residents: A comparison of two data collection methods. BMC Nursing 3 (1). DOI: 10.1186/1472-6955-3-5. Retrieved from http://www.nursinglibrary.org/vhl/handle/10755/621466en
dc.descriptionDL participated in the second line of statistical analyses, and drafted the manuscript. PV drafted parts of the document and contributed to the editing. RV contributed to the editing of the manuscript. PJD served as the Principal Investigator, designed the study, participated and oversaw field activity, revised and edited the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. We are grateful to Diane Richard, RN, for expert advice and assistance during data collection. We also recognize the work of Josée Bourdages, PhD, for assistance during data collection, and of Claude Lapointe, MSc, and Zohra Benounissa, MScA, for statistical assistance.en
dc.description.noteThis item appears in the Virginia Henderson Global Nursing e-Repository by way of the author’s decision to publish with BMC Nursing, an open access journal, under a Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0. The license allows users to freely share and adapt the author’s material for any purpose, even commercially. Please refer to the attached license (the icon at the bottom of this entry) for further information and terms. All terms of the license have been followed. There are no changes in this article from the original posting. Neither STTI nor the Henderson Repository has any affiliation with BMC Nursing. Each shares only a mutual desire to distribute nursing research in an open access venue.-
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