Factors Affecting Time Nurses Spend With Fathers in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU)

2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10755/621856
Category:
Full-text
Format:
Text-based Document
Type:
Presentation
Level of Evidence:
N/A
Research Approach:
N/A
Title:
Factors Affecting Time Nurses Spend With Fathers in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU)
Other Titles:
Children in the Intensive Care Unit
Author(s):
Clarkson, Gina; Gilmer, Mary Jo
Lead Author STTI Affiliation:
Theta Upsilon
Author Details:
Gina Clarkson, PhD, ARNP, NNP-BC, Professional Experience: PhD in Nursing Science received from Vanderbilt University in May 2016. Dissertation entitled “Factors influencing paternal involvement in the neonatal intensive care unit”. Current faculty position as Assistant Professor at Idaho State University. Clinical experience includes RN since 1997, nurse in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) since 2002, neonatal nurse practitioner since 2009. Research area of interest is family-centered care in the NICU with a focus on fathers. The research study abstract submitted with this application was conducted as a student under the guidance of faculty at Vanderbilt University. Qualitative analysis was conducted with Dr. MaryJo Gilmer, who is listed as a co-author on this abstract. Author Summary: Dr. Gina Clarkson is currently an assistant professor at Idaho State University. She received her PhD from Vanderbilt University in May 2016. Her dissertation was entitled “Factors Influencing Paternal Involvement in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit”. She is now working to continue a program of research in family-centered care, specifically focusing on fathers of infants. In her clinical practice, Dr. Clarkson has been a nurse since 1997 and a Neonatal Nurse Practitioner since 2009.
Abstract:

Purpose: The aim of this exploratory study was to describe factors affecting the amount of time neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) nurses spend with fathers. Background and Rationale. Family-centered care (FCC) is considered an important standard of practice in NICUs worldwide and research has been conducted in many countries such as Japan, Sweden, Canada, Germany, Iran, United Kingdom, Czech Republic, Taiwan and Australia (Asai, 2011; Blomqvist, Rubertsson, Kylberg, Jöreskog, & Nyqvist, 2012; Feeley, Waitzer, Sherrard, Boisvert, & Zelkowitz, 2013; Garten, Nazary, Metze, & Bührer, 2013; Hadian Shirazi, Sharif, Rakhshan, Pishva, & Jahanpour, 2015; Hugill, 2014; Jakšová, Sikorová, & Hladík, 2016; Lee, Wang, Lin, & Kao, 2013; Trajkovski, Schmied, Vickers, & Jackson, 2012). Family-centered care has been shown to be important to outcomes of infants and families (Maria & Dasgupta, 2016; Williams, 2016). Although nursing practice related to FCC has been studied with both parents (Asai, 2011; Trajkovski et al., 2012), NICU nurses have not previously been asked about how they spend time specifically with fathers. Fathers report NICU staff to be a great source of support (Feeley et al., 2013; Garten et al., 2013) but evidence suggests paternal visitation declines over the length of hospital stay (Clarkson, 2016; Garten, Maass, Schmalisch, & Bührer, 2011) making less time available for nurses to provide FCC to fathers. Fathers desire to be involved and report increased comfort with their infants with increased involvement (Blomqvist et al., 2012) but also report reluctance to be involved without support (Feeley et al., 2013). Therefore, it is important to evaluate factors which affect the amount of time nurses are able to spend with fathers during their visits.

Methods:  This study used a descriptive design and an investigator-designed survey with open-answered questions. The setting was a NICU in a large urban teaching facility at a children’s hospital in the southeast United States which employed 274 nurses. Results presented here were part of a larger survey. A formal IRB exemption was obtained prior to data collection. Neonatal nurse practitioners (NNPs) were excluded due to their provider role. The data was collected anonymously using an online survey. Invitations to participate were sent to all the nurses via emails by the unit assistant manager.

Results: Overall, 94 nurses participated (34% response rate). Demographic information showed most were bedside nurses (N=75, 79.8%) who worked full-time (N= 84, 90.3%) day shift (N= 53, 57%). Most were Caucasian (94.5%) women (98.9%) with bachelor's degrees (63.8%) who were married (65.9%). Median years worked in a NICU were 8 (range of <1 to 40). Median years of nursing experience were 10 (range of < 1 to 52). Age ranged from 23 to 72 years (M=39.6, SD=12.89). Out of the 94 participants, 65% (N=61) provided data for qualitative analysis. Content analysis of the data was conducted by two researchers with expertise in FCC and care of neonates and demonstrated 91.7% overall interrater reliability. Theme categories included nurse factors, father factors, mother factors and infant factors. Subthemes for nurse factors included work flow, equal educator, focus on mother, focus on father, promotion of family bonding and nurse as gatekeeper. Subthemes for father factors included confidence, motivation, level of competence, beliefs, attitudes and availability. Subthemes for mother factors included culture and maternal gatekeeping and subthemes for infant factors were level of illness and tolerance to activity.

Conclusion:  Results show that although nurses indicate spending time with fathers in the NICU is important, many factors reduce the quantity and quality of that time. These results help to identify factors which may be modified or moderated by nurses or administration and can be used to help improve nursing knowledge and practice of family-centered care in NICUs worldwide.

Keywords:
family-centered care; NICU nurses; fathers of neonates
Repository Posting Date:
14-Jul-2017
Date of Publication:
14-Jul-2017
Other Identifiers:
INRC17H08
Conference Date:
2017
Conference Name:
28th International Nursing Research Congress
Conference Host:
Sigma Theta Tau International
Conference Location:
Dublin, Ireland
Description:
Event Theme: Influencing Global Health Through the Advancement of Nursing Scholarship

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoen_USen
dc.type.categoryFull-texten
dc.formatText-based Documenten
dc.typePresentationen
dc.evidence.levelN/Aen
dc.research.approachN/Aen
dc.titleFactors Affecting Time Nurses Spend With Fathers in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU)en_US
dc.title.alternativeChildren in the Intensive Care Uniten
dc.contributor.authorClarkson, Ginaen
dc.contributor.authorGilmer, Mary Joen
dc.contributor.departmentTheta Upsilonen
dc.author.detailsGina Clarkson, PhD, ARNP, NNP-BC, Professional Experience: PhD in Nursing Science received from Vanderbilt University in May 2016. Dissertation entitled “Factors influencing paternal involvement in the neonatal intensive care unit”. Current faculty position as Assistant Professor at Idaho State University. Clinical experience includes RN since 1997, nurse in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) since 2002, neonatal nurse practitioner since 2009. Research area of interest is family-centered care in the NICU with a focus on fathers. The research study abstract submitted with this application was conducted as a student under the guidance of faculty at Vanderbilt University. Qualitative analysis was conducted with Dr. MaryJo Gilmer, who is listed as a co-author on this abstract. Author Summary: Dr. Gina Clarkson is currently an assistant professor at Idaho State University. She received her PhD from Vanderbilt University in May 2016. Her dissertation was entitled “Factors Influencing Paternal Involvement in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit”. She is now working to continue a program of research in family-centered care, specifically focusing on fathers of infants. In her clinical practice, Dr. Clarkson has been a nurse since 1997 and a Neonatal Nurse Practitioner since 2009.en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10755/621856-
dc.description.abstract<p><strong>Purpose: </strong><span>The aim of this exploratory study was to describe factors affecting the amount of time neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) nurses spend with fathers. Background and Rationale. Family-centered care (FCC) is considered an important standard of practice in NICUs worldwide and research has been conducted in many countries such as Japan, Sweden, Canada, Germany, Iran, United Kingdom, Czech Republic, Taiwan and Australia (Asai, 2011; Blomqvist, Rubertsson, Kylberg, Jöreskog, & Nyqvist, 2012; Feeley, Waitzer, Sherrard, Boisvert, & Zelkowitz, 2013; Garten, Nazary, Metze, & Bührer, 2013; Hadian Shirazi, Sharif, Rakhshan, Pishva, & Jahanpour, 2015; Hugill, 2014; Jakšová, Sikorová, & Hladík, 2016; Lee, Wang, Lin, & Kao, 2013; Trajkovski, Schmied, Vickers, & Jackson, 2012). Family-centered care has been shown to be important to outcomes of infants and families (Maria & Dasgupta, 2016; Williams, 2016). Although nursing practice related to FCC has been studied with both parents (Asai, 2011; Trajkovski et al., 2012), NICU nurses have not previously been asked about how they spend time specifically with fathers. Fathers report NICU staff to be a great source of support (Feeley et al., 2013; Garten et al., 2013) but evidence suggests paternal visitation declines over the length of hospital stay (Clarkson, 2016; Garten, Maass, Schmalisch, & Bührer, 2011) making less time available for nurses to provide FCC to fathers. Fathers desire to be involved and report increased comfort with their infants with increased involvement (Blomqvist et al., 2012) but also report reluctance to be involved without support (Feeley et al., 2013). Therefore, it is important to evaluate factors which affect the amount of time nurses are able to spend with fathers during their visits.</span></p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong> This study used a descriptive design and an investigator-designed survey with open-answered questions. The setting was a NICU in a large urban teaching facility at a children’s hospital in the southeast United States which employed 274 nurses. <strong>Results </strong>presented here were part of a larger survey. A formal IRB exemption was obtained prior to data collection. Neonatal nurse practitioners (NNPs) were excluded due to their provider role. The data was collected anonymously using an online survey. Invitations to participate were sent to all the nurses via emails by the unit assistant manager.</p> <p>Results: Overall, 94 nurses participated (34% response rate). Demographic information showed most were bedside nurses (N=75, 79.8%) who worked full-time (N= 84, 90.3%) day shift (N= 53, 57%). Most were Caucasian (94.5%) women (98.9%) with bachelor's degrees (63.8%) who were married (65.9%). Median years worked in a NICU were 8 (range of <1 to 40). Median years of nursing experience were 10 (range of < 1 to 52). Age ranged from 23 to 72 years (M=39.6, SD=12.89). Out of the 94 participants, 65% (N=61) provided data for qualitative analysis. Content analysis of the data was conducted by two researchers with expertise in FCC and care of neonates and demonstrated 91.7% overall interrater reliability. Theme categories included nurse factors, father factors, mother factors and infant factors. Subthemes for nurse factors included work flow, equal educator, focus on mother, focus on father, promotion of family bonding and nurse as gatekeeper. Subthemes for father factors included confidence, motivation, level of competence, beliefs, attitudes and availability. Subthemes for mother factors included culture and maternal gatekeeping and subthemes for infant factors were level of illness and tolerance to activity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong> Results show that although nurses indicate spending time with fathers in the NICU is important, many factors reduce the quantity and quality of that time. These results help to identify factors which may be modified or moderated by nurses or administration and can be used to help improve nursing knowledge and practice of family-centered care in NICUs worldwide.</p>en
dc.subjectfamily-centered careen
dc.subjectNICU nursesen
dc.subjectfathers of neonatesen
dc.date.available2017-07-14T20:48:08Z-
dc.date.issued2017-07-14-
dc.date.accessioned2017-07-14T20:48:08Z-
dc.conference.date2017en
dc.conference.name28th International Nursing Research Congressen
dc.conference.hostSigma Theta Tau Internationalen
dc.conference.locationDublin, Irelanden
dc.descriptionEvent Theme: Influencing Global Health Through the Advancement of Nursing Scholarshipen
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