The Theory of Psychological Ownership: Measurement and Uses in Nurse Work Environment Research

2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10755/622081
Category:
Full-text
Format:
Text-based Document
Type:
Presentation
Level of Evidence:
N/A
Research Approach:
N/A
Title:
The Theory of Psychological Ownership: Measurement and Uses in Nurse Work Environment Research
Other Titles:
Nursing Governance
Author(s):
Schirle, Lori M.
Lead Author STTI Affiliation:
Iota
Author Details:
Lori M. Schirle, PhD, CRNA, Professional Experience: 2016-present-- Post Doctoral Fellow, Health Services Research, Vanderbilt School of Nursing, Nashville, TN 2013-2014--Research Assistant, University of Miami, School of Nursing and Health Studies, Coral Gables, FL 2012-2016 Florida Action Coalition, Steering Committee Member and Lead of Practice Action Team. Responsible for implementation of IOM Future of Nursing Recommendations in Florida 2009-2010-- President, Florida Association of Nurse Anesthetists 2003-present-- Florida Association of Nurse Anesthetists. Active member serving in numerous Board of Director positions and committee chairs. Grant reviewer for Florida Blue Foundation Statewide Nursing Leadership Development Program (2015). Design and implementation of CRNA workforce study in Florida (2013-2014). Numerous presentations at scientific meetings. 1985-present. Clinical practice in various capacities in hospital settings. Author Summary: Lori Schirle is a nurse anesthetist, and Health Services Research Post-Doctoral Fellow at Vanderbilt University. Her research interests include nurse workforce, work environment, opioid prescribing and health policy. Prior to her research career, she spent 31 years as a practicing nurse and nurse anesthetist, developing an interest in how health policy shapes nursing work. Lori has won various awards for dedication to the nursing profession, and has published and presented on various health policy topics.
Abstract:

Research suggests nurse work environment is a critical component of good nursing care leading to better job satisfaction, lower burnout, less turnover, and improved patient morbidity and mortality (Kutney-Lee et al., 2015). Work structures and processes that increase control, empowerment, autonomy, decision making, good working relations, and supportive leadership are identified as crucial to these outcomes (Aiken et al., 2012). As pervasive as these concepts are in nursing research, recent systematic reviews find inconclusive effects of nurse work environment on both patient and nurse outcomes (Bae, 2011; Dariel, Petit, & Regnaux, 2015; Lu, Barriball, Zhang, & While, 2012). Critical analysis suggests that a bivariate approach to such a complex situation may be too simplistic, and causal mechanisms such as moderators that play a key role in the relationship should be considered (Bae, 2011; Norman, 2013).

Psychological Ownership is a concept that describes how work environment psychologically influences the worker, and may provide a mechanism for this connection. The Theory of Psychological Ownership identifies three routes to the development of feelings of psychological ownership: Control, Intimate Knowledge, and Investment of Self (Pierce & Jussila, 2011). Only one route is needed to develop feelings of ownership for a target. Organizations provide opportunities for job ownership through the way work is structured and the degree to which employees control their work. Psychological ownership links the employee to the organization or job, leading to a heightened sense of responsibility for work outputs. Positive effects of psychological ownership include increased commitment, job satisfaction, organization-based self-esteem, work engagement, lower burnout, and increased intent to stay (Dawkins, Tian, Newman, & Martin, 2015)

Although related concepts have been researched in the context of work environment such as organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and organizational identification, psychological ownership is the only construct focused on the sense of ownership (Pierce & Jussila, 2011). Ownership is a primitive concept that may influence behavior and reasoning in many domains (Friedman & Ross, 2011). Employees with heightened psychological ownership exhibit an enhanced sense of responsibility for the target of the ownership (Dawkins et al., 2015). Accordingly, facilitating nurse psychological ownership through work environment manipulation could translate into improved care delivery and a heightened sense of responsibility for patient outcomes, providing the missing link between improved nurse work environments and desired outcomes.

Since its inception in the 1990s, the Theory of Psychological Ownership has been employed to study many types of organizations and their employees. Critical constructs in good nursing work environments and those central to the concept of psychological ownership overlap, yet, only two published nursing studies have utilized a tool based on psychological ownership, (Kaur, Sambasivan, & Kumar, 2013; Yoo, Yoo, & Kim, 2012), and none have applied the Theory of Psychological Ownership. Several tools exist to measure psychological ownership, the most-used a 6-item tool that measures the degree of psychological ownership, but not the three routes (Pierce & Jussila, 2011). Recently, a tool was introduced which expanded the original 6-item tool, adding three subscales to include the routes to psychological ownership (Brown, Pierce, & Crossley, 2013). The purposes of this presentation are to 1) introduce The Theory of Psychological Ownership as a tool for nurse work environment research, and 2) describe the use of the expanded measure in a hospital nursing sample.

Methods:

A convenience sample of 542 Florida APRNs from 126 different hospital settings responded to an online survey. APRNs were recruited through a public Board of Nursing database, or through their Chief Nursing Officers. APRNs who self-identified as working in hospitals were eligible for participation. The expanded Psychological Ownership questionnaire was a measure included in the survey. This measure is composed of 21-items and 4 subscales of Control, Intimate Knowledge, Investment of Self, and Psychological Ownership. Items are scored on a 4-point Likert-type scale (strongly agree, agree, disagree, and strongly disagree). Reliability and validity tests were performed, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was employed to ascertain the measures’ functionality in this sample.

Results:

 Analyses reveal good measure and subscale reliability with subscale Cronbach αs ranging from .77-.91. CFA model results reveal good fit of the model to the data (Χ2 [393] = 403.185, p=.351, RMSEA = .007, and CFI=.998. Subscale factor loadings were significant and high, with standardized estimates ranging .65 to .94. Eighty-four percent of APRNs reported favorable responses (strongly agree or agree) the psychological ownership subscale indicating a strong sense of psychological ownership. Subscale analyses revealed the highest favorable scores on Intimate Knowledge (94%), and Investment of Self (93%), and the lowest favorable scores on Control (59%).

Conclusion:

The expanded psychological ownership measure performed well in an advanced practice nursing population indicating the subscales of the measure functioned as intended. This is not surprising given the overlapping fundamental constructs in psychological ownership and good nursing practice environments. Percentage of favorable responses in the control subscale were low in comparison with other subscales, suggesting that although overall perceptions of psychological ownership are high in this population, it primarily develops through intimate knowledge of and investment of self into one’s job, rather than through control. This is in contrast to findings in other professions studied (Pierce & Jussila, 2011). Hospitals are organizations known for bureaucratic, hierarchical power structures with less favorable practice environments for APRNs (Poghosyan et al., 2015). Control, empowerment, and decision making are interwoven organizational structures that impact the development of psychological ownership (Pierce & Jussila, 2011), therefore it is predictable that the route of control may be less consequential to hospital APRNs’ overall psychological ownership scores.

The Theory of Psychological Ownership is a contemporary idea with substantive applications for nursing work environment research. Experts recognize the importance of nurse work environment, but are calling for targeted research that can lead to interventions to improve patient and nurse outcomes. Evidence suggests fostering psychological ownership for one’s job improves employee/organizational performance and outcomes in other fields. Exploration of Psychological Ownership as a mechanism for improved outcomes, and organizational interventions to increase psychological ownership of nurses has great potential to meet the global goal of improved healthcare quality.

Keywords:
outcomes; psychological ownership; work environment
Repository Posting Date:
24-Jul-2017
Date of Publication:
24-Jul-2017
Other Identifiers:
INRC17D12
Conference Date:
2017
Conference Name:
28th International Nursing Research Congress
Conference Host:
Sigma Theta Tau International
Conference Location:
Dublin, Ireland
Description:
Event Theme: Influencing Global Health Through the Advancement of Nursing Scholarship

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoen_USen
dc.type.categoryFull-texten
dc.formatText-based Documenten
dc.typePresentationen
dc.evidence.levelN/Aen
dc.research.approachN/Aen
dc.titleThe Theory of Psychological Ownership: Measurement and Uses in Nurse Work Environment Researchen_US
dc.title.alternativeNursing Governanceen
dc.contributor.authorSchirle, Lori M.en
dc.contributor.departmentIotaen
dc.author.detailsLori M. Schirle, PhD, CRNA, Professional Experience: 2016-present-- Post Doctoral Fellow, Health Services Research, Vanderbilt School of Nursing, Nashville, TN 2013-2014--Research Assistant, University of Miami, School of Nursing and Health Studies, Coral Gables, FL 2012-2016 Florida Action Coalition, Steering Committee Member and Lead of Practice Action Team. Responsible for implementation of IOM Future of Nursing Recommendations in Florida 2009-2010-- President, Florida Association of Nurse Anesthetists 2003-present-- Florida Association of Nurse Anesthetists. Active member serving in numerous Board of Director positions and committee chairs. Grant reviewer for Florida Blue Foundation Statewide Nursing Leadership Development Program (2015). Design and implementation of CRNA workforce study in Florida (2013-2014). Numerous presentations at scientific meetings. 1985-present. Clinical practice in various capacities in hospital settings. Author Summary: Lori Schirle is a nurse anesthetist, and Health Services Research Post-Doctoral Fellow at Vanderbilt University. Her research interests include nurse workforce, work environment, opioid prescribing and health policy. Prior to her research career, she spent 31 years as a practicing nurse and nurse anesthetist, developing an interest in how health policy shapes nursing work. Lori has won various awards for dedication to the nursing profession, and has published and presented on various health policy topics.en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10755/622081-
dc.description.abstract<p>Research suggests nurse work environment is a critical component of good nursing care leading to better job satisfaction, lower burnout, less turnover, and improved patient morbidity and mortality (Kutney-Lee et al., 2015). Work structures and processes that increase control, empowerment, autonomy, decision making, good working relations, and supportive leadership are identified as crucial to these outcomes (Aiken et al., 2012). As pervasive as these concepts are in nursing research, recent systematic reviews find inconclusive effects of nurse work environment on both patient and nurse outcomes (Bae, 2011; Dariel, Petit, & Regnaux, 2015; Lu, Barriball, Zhang, & While, 2012). Critical analysis suggests that a bivariate approach to such a complex situation may be too simplistic, and causal mechanisms such as moderators that play a key role in the relationship should be considered (Bae, 2011; Norman, 2013).</p> <p>Psychological Ownership is a concept that describes how work environment psychologically influences the worker, and may provide a mechanism for this connection. The Theory of Psychological Ownership identifies three routes to the development of feelings of psychological ownership: Control, Intimate Knowledge, and Investment of Self (Pierce & Jussila, 2011). Only one route is needed to develop feelings of ownership for a target. Organizations provide opportunities for job ownership through the way work is structured and the degree to which employees control their work. Psychological ownership links the employee to the organization or job, leading to a heightened sense of responsibility for work outputs. Positive effects of psychological ownership include increased commitment, job satisfaction, organization-based self-esteem, work engagement, lower burnout, and increased intent to stay (Dawkins, Tian, Newman, & Martin, 2015)</p> <p>Although related concepts have been researched in the context of work environment such as organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and organizational identification, psychological ownership is the <em>only</em> construct focused on the sense of ownership (Pierce & Jussila, 2011). Ownership is a primitive concept that may influence behavior and reasoning in many domains (Friedman & Ross, 2011). Employees with heightened psychological ownership exhibit an enhanced sense of responsibility for the target of the ownership (Dawkins et al., 2015). Accordingly, facilitating nurse psychological ownership through work environment manipulation could translate into improved care delivery and a heightened sense of responsibility for patient outcomes, providing the missing link between improved nurse work environments and desired outcomes.</p> <p>Since its inception in the 1990s, the Theory of Psychological Ownership has been employed to study many types of organizations and their employees. Critical constructs in good nursing work environments and those central to the concept of psychological ownership overlap, yet, only two published nursing studies have utilized a tool based on psychological ownership, (Kaur, Sambasivan, & Kumar, 2013; Yoo, Yoo, & Kim, 2012), and none have applied the Theory of Psychological Ownership. Several tools exist to measure psychological ownership, the most-used a 6-item tool that measures the degree of psychological ownership, but not the three routes (Pierce & Jussila, 2011). Recently, a tool was introduced which expanded the original 6-item tool, adding three subscales to include the routes to psychological ownership (Brown, Pierce, & Crossley, 2013). The purposes of this presentation are to 1) introduce The Theory of Psychological Ownership as a tool for nurse work environment research, and 2) describe the use of the expanded measure in a hospital nursing sample.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong></p> <p>A convenience sample of 542 Florida APRNs from 126 different hospital settings responded to an online survey. APRNs were recruited through a public Board of Nursing database, or through their Chief Nursing Officers. APRNs who self-identified as working in hospitals were eligible for participation. The expanded Psychological Ownership questionnaire was a measure included in the survey. This measure is composed of 21-items and 4 subscales of Control, Intimate Knowledge, Investment of Self, and Psychological Ownership. Items are scored on a 4-point Likert-type scale (<em>strongly agree, agree, disagree, and strongly disagree</em>). Reliability and validity tests were performed, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was employed to ascertain the measures’ functionality in this sample.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p> Analyses reveal good measure and subscale reliability with subscale Cronbach αs ranging from .77-.91. CFA model results reveal good fit of the model to the data (Χ<sup>2</sup> [393] = 403.185, <em>p</em>=.351, RMSEA = .007, and CFI=.998. Subscale factor loadings were significant and high, with standardized estimates ranging .65 to .94. Eighty-four percent of APRNs reported favorable responses (<em>strongly agree or agree</em>) the psychological ownership subscale indicating a strong sense of psychological ownership. Subscale analyses revealed the highest favorable scores on Intimate Knowledge (94%), and Investment of Self (93%), and the lowest favorable scores on Control (59%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong></p> <p>The expanded psychological ownership measure performed well in an advanced practice nursing population indicating the subscales of the measure functioned as intended. This is not surprising given the overlapping fundamental constructs in psychological ownership and good nursing practice environments. Percentage of favorable responses in the control subscale were low in comparison with other subscales, suggesting that although overall perceptions of psychological ownership are high in this population, it primarily develops through intimate knowledge of and investment of self into one’s job, rather than through control. This is in contrast to findings in other professions studied (Pierce & Jussila, 2011). Hospitals are organizations known for bureaucratic, hierarchical power structures with less favorable practice environments for APRNs (Poghosyan et al., 2015). Control, empowerment, and decision making are interwoven organizational structures that impact the development of psychological ownership (Pierce & Jussila, 2011), therefore it is predictable that the route of control may be less consequential to hospital APRNs’ overall psychological ownership scores.</p> <p>The Theory of Psychological Ownership is a contemporary idea with substantive applications for nursing work environment research. Experts recognize the importance of nurse work environment, but are calling for targeted research that can lead to interventions to improve patient and nurse outcomes. Evidence suggests fostering psychological ownership for one’s job improves employee/organizational performance and outcomes in other fields. Exploration of Psychological Ownership as a mechanism for improved outcomes, and organizational interventions to increase psychological ownership of nurses has great potential to meet the global goal of improved healthcare quality.</p>en
dc.subjectoutcomesen
dc.subjectpsychological ownershipen
dc.subjectwork environmenten
dc.date.available2017-07-24T19:20:23Z-
dc.date.issued2017-07-24-
dc.date.accessioned2017-07-24T19:20:23Z-
dc.conference.date2017en
dc.conference.name28th International Nursing Research Congressen
dc.conference.hostSigma Theta Tau Internationalen
dc.conference.locationDublin, Irelanden
dc.descriptionEvent Theme: Influencing Global Health Through the Advancement of Nursing Scholarshipen
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